Etymology
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argument (n.)

early 14c., "statements and reasoning in support of a proposition or causing belief in a doubtful matter," from Old French arguement "reasoning, opinion; accusation, charge" (13c.), from Latin argumentum "a logical argument; evidence, ground, support, proof," from arguere "make clear, make known, prove" (see argue). Sense passed through "subject of contention" (1590s) to "a quarrel" (by 1911), a sense formerly attached to argumentation.

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Definitions of argument

argument (n.)
a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true;
it was a strong argument that his hypothesis was true
Synonyms: statement
argument (n.)
a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement;
they were involved in a violent argument
Synonyms: controversy / contention / contestation / disputation / disceptation / tilt / arguing
argument (n.)
a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal;
the argument over foreign aid goes on and on
Synonyms: argumentation / debate
argument (n.)
a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie;
the editor added the argument to the poem
Synonyms: literary argument
argument (n.)
(computer science) a reference or value that is passed to a function, procedure, subroutine, command, or program;
Synonyms: parameter
argument (n.)
a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable;
argument (n.)
a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning;
Synonyms: argumentation / logical argument / line of reasoning / line
From wordnet.princeton.edu