Words related to argument
De Vaan says arguere is probably "a denominative verb 'to make bright, enlighten' to an adj. *argu- 'bright' as continued in argutus and outside Italic." He cites a closely similar formation in Hittite arkuuae- "to make a plea." Meaning "to oppose, dispute, contend in argument" is from late 14c. Related: Argued; arguing.
mid-15c., "presentation of formal arguments," from Old French argumentacion (14c.), from Latin argumentationem (nominative argumentatio) "the bringing forth of a proof," noun of action from past-participle stem of argumentari "adduce proof, draw a conclusion," from argumentum (see argument). Meaning "debate, wrangling, argument back and forth" is from 1530s.