"science of the natural history of man," 1590s, originally especially of the relation between physiology and psychology, from Modern Latin anthropologia or coined independently in English from anthropo- + -logy. In Aristotle, anthrōpologos is used literally, as "speaking of man." Related: Anthropologic; anthropological.
compound adjectival word-forming element, usually interchangeable with -ic but sometimes with specialized sense (such as historic/historical, politic/political), Middle English, from Late Latin -icalis, from Latin -icus + -alis (see -al (1)). Probably it was needed because the forms in -ic often took on a noun sense (for example physic). Forms in -ical tend to be attested earlier in English than their twins in -ic.
<a href="https://www.etymonline.com/word/anthropological">Etymology of anthropological by etymonline</a>
Harper, D. (n.d.). Etymology of anthropological. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved $(datetime), from https://www.etymonline.com/word/anthropological