annual (adj.)

late 14c., "appointed by the year;" c. 1400, ""occurring or done once a year," from Old French annuel "yearly" (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin annualis "yearly," corresponding to Latin annalis as adjective form of annus "year."

This is reconstructed to be from Proto-Italic *atno- "year" (compare Oscan akno- "year, holiday, time of offering"), from PIE *at-no- "which goes," also "a year" (as "going around"), suffixed form of root *at- "to go" (source also of Sanskrit atati "goes, wanders," atamana- "to travel, wander," atya- "steed, runner"). The root also has Germanic derivatives meaning "a year," such as Gothic aþnam (dative plural) "year."

annual (n.)

c. 1400, originally "service commemorating the anniversary of a person's death," from annual (adj.) or from Late Latin annualem (nominative annualis). By 1680s as "plant that grows again or blooms every year," also as "annual literary publication."

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