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analysis (n.)

1580s, "resolution of anything complex into simple elements" (opposite of synthesis), from Medieval Latin analysis (15c.), from Greek analysis "solution of a problem by analysis," literally "a breaking up, a loosening, releasing," noun of action from analyein "unloose, release, set free; to loose a ship from its moorings," in Aristotle, "to analyze," from ana "up, back, throughout" (see ana-) + lysis "a loosening," from lyein "to unfasten" (from PIE root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart").

Meaning "statement presenting results of an analytic process" is from 1660s. Psychological sense is from 1890. English also formerly had a noun analyse (1630s), from French analyse, from Medieval Latin analysis. Phrase in the final (or last) analysis (1844), translates French en dernière analyse.

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Definitions of analysis from WordNet

analysis (n.)
an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole;
analysis (n.)
the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations;
Synonyms: analytic thinking
analysis (n.)
a form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed;
analysis (n.)
the use of closed-class words instead of inflections: e.g., `the father of the bride' instead of `the bride's father';
analysis (n.)
a branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation;
analysis (n.)
a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud;
Synonyms: psychoanalysis / depth psychology
From wordnet.princeton.edu