Words related to an-

anarch (n.)
1660s, "leader of leaderlessness," a deliciously paradoxical word used by Milton, Pope, Shelley, Byron; from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + arkhon "ruler" (see archon), and compare anarchy. Also "an anarchist" (1884).
anarchy (n.)

1530s, "absence of government," from French anarchie or directly from Medieval Latin anarchia, from Greek anarkhia "lack of a leader, the state of people without a government" (in Athens, used of the Year of Thirty Tyrants, 404 B.C., when there was no archon), abstract noun from anarkhos "rulerless," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + arkhos "leader" (see archon).

From 1660s as "confusion or absence of authority in general;" by 1849 in reference to the social theory advocating "order without power," with associations and co-operatives taking the place of direct government, as formulated in the 1830s by French political philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865).

Either the State for ever, crushing individual and local life, taking over in all fields of human activity, bringing with it its wars and its domestic struggles for power, its palace revolutions which only replace one tyrant by another, and inevitably at the end of this development there is ... death! Or the destruction of States, and new life starting again in thousands of centers on the principle of the lively initiative of the individual and groups and that of free agreement. The choice lies with you! [Prince Peter Kropotkin (1842-1921), "The State: Its Historic Role," 1896]
anecdote (n.)
1670s, "secret or private stories," from French anecdote (17c.) or directly from Medieval Latin anecdota, from Greek anekdota "things unpublished," neuter plural of anekdotos, from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + ekdotos "published," from ek- "out" (see ex-) + didonai "to give" (from PIE root *do- "to give").

Procopius' 6c. Anecdota, unpublished memoirs of Emperor Justinian full of court gossip, gave the word a sense of "revelation of secrets," which decayed in English to "brief, amusing story" (1761).
anechoic (adj.)
1948, in electronics, from an- (1) "not" + echoic.
anemia (n.)
"deficiency of blood in a living body," alternative (chiefly U.S.) spelling of anaemia (q.v.); also see æ (1). As a genus of plants, Modern Latin, from Greek aneimon "unclad," from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + eima "a dress, garment" (see wear (v.)).
anencephalic (adj.)

"having no brain" (biology), 1821, with -ic + Latinized form of Greek anenkephalos, from an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + enkephalos "brain," "the brain," literally "within the head," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kephalē "head;" see cephalo-. Related: Anencephalous (1834); anencephalia; anencephaly.

anesthesia (n.)

1721, "loss of feeling," medical Latin, from Greek anaisthēsia "want of feeling or perception, lack of sensation (to pleasure or pain)," abstract noun from an- "without" (see an- (1)) + aisthēsis "feeling," from PIE root *au- "to perceive." For the abstract noun ending, see -ia. As "a procedure for the prevention of pain in surgical operations," from 1846. Aesthesia "capacity for feeling" is attested in English from 1853, perhaps a back-formation.

aneuploidy (n.)

abnormal number of chromosomes, 1934, from adjective aneuploid (1931), Modern Latin, coined 1922 by G. Täckholm from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + euploid, from Greek eu "well, good" (see eu-) + -ploid, from -ploos "fold" (from PIE root *pel- (2) "to fold").

anhedonia (n.)

"inability to feel pleasure," 1897, from French anhédonie, coined 1896 by French psychologist Theodule Ribot as an opposite to analgesia, from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + hedone "pleasure" (see hedonist) + abstract noun ending -ia.

anhydrous (adj.)
"containing no water," 1809, a modern coinage from Greek an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + hydor "water" (from PIE root *wed- (1) "water; wet") + -ous. Greek did have anhydros "waterless," used of arid lands or corpses that had not been given proper funeral rites.

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