Etymology
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Words related to air

aorta (n.)

in anatomy, "main trunk of the arterial system," 1590s, from Medieval Latin aorta, from Greek aorte "a strap to hang (something by)," a word applied by Aristotle to the great artery of the heart, literally "what is hung up," probably from aeirein "to lift, heave, raise," which is of uncertain origin, possibly from PIE root *wer- (1) "raise, lift, hold suspended." Used earlier by Hippocrates of the bronchial tubes. It is cognate with the second element in meteor. Related: Aortal; aortic.

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loft (n.)
"an upper chamber," c. 1300, an extended sense from late Old English loft "the sky; the sphere of the air," from Old Norse lopt (Scandinavian -pt- pronounced like -ft-) "air, sky," originally "upper story, loft, attic," from Proto-Germanic *luftuz "air, sky" (source also of Old English lyft, Dutch lucht, Old High German luft, German Luft, Gothic luftus "air").

If this is correct, the sense development would be from "loft, ceiling" to "sky, air." Buck suggests a further connection with Old High German louft "bark," louba "roof, attic," etc., with development from "bark" to "roof made of bark" to "ceiling," though this did not directly inform the meaning "air, sky" (compare lodge (n.)). But Watkins says this is "probably a separate Germanic root." Meaning "gallery in a church" first attested c. 1500. From 1520s as "apartment over a stable" used for hay storage, etc.
debonair (adj.)

c. 1200, "mild, gentle, kind courteous," from Old French debonaire, from de bon' aire "of good race," originally used of hawks, hence, "thoroughbred" (opposite of French demalaire); aire here is perhaps from Latin ager "place, field" (from PIE root *agro- "field") on notion of "place of origin." Used in Middle English to mean "docile, courteous," it became obsolete and was revived with an altered sense of "pleasantly light-hearted and affable" (1680s). OED says it is "now a literary archaism, often assimilated in spelling to mod.F. débonnaire." Related: Debonairly.

*agro- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "field;" probably a derivative of root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move."

It forms all or part of: acorn; acre; agrarian; agriculture; agriology; agro-; agronomy; onager; peregrinate; peregrination; peregrine; pilgrim; stavesacre.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit ajras "plain, open country," Greek agros "field," Latin ager (genitive agri) "a field," Gothic akrs, Old English æcer "field."
atmosphere (n.)

1630s, atmosphaera (modern form from 1670s), "gaseous envelop surrounding the earth," from Modern Latin atmosphaera, from Greek atmos "vapor, steam" (see atmo-) + sphaira "sphere" (see sphere). In old science, "vaporous air," which was considered a part of the earth and a contamination of the lower part of the air (n.1).

Þe ouer partye of þe eyr is pure and clene, clere, esy & softe, ffor mevynge of stormys, of wynde and of wedir may nat reche þerto; and so it perteyneþ to heuenlych kynde. And þe neþir partye is nyʒe to þe spere of watir and of erþe, and is troubly, greet and þicke, corpulent and ful of moyst erþy vapoures, as longiþ to erþy partyes. Þe eyr strecchiþ hym kyndely al aboute fro þe ouer partye of þe erþe and of watir anon to þe spere of fire. [Bartholomew Glanville, "De proprietatibus rerum," c. 1240, translated by John of Trevisa c. 1398 ]

First used in English in connection with the Moon, which, as it turns out, practically has none.

'Tis Observed, in the Solary Eclipses, that there is some times a great Trepidation about the Body of the Moon, from which we may likewise argue an Atmo-sphaera, since we cannot well conceive what so probable a cause there should be of such an appearance as this, Quod radii Solares a vaporibus Lunam ambientibus fuerint intercisi, that the Sun-beams were broken and refracted by the Vapours that encompassed the Moon. [Rev. John Wilkins, "Discovery of New World or Discourse tending to prove that it probable there may be another World in the Moon," 1638]

Figurative sense of "surrounding influence, mental or moral environment" is c. 1800.

anima (n.)
Jung's term for the inner part of the personality, or the female component of a masculine personality, 1923, from fem. of Latin animus "the rational soul; life; the mental powers, intelligence" (see animus). For earlier use in the sense "soul, vital principle," see anima mundi.
aria (n.)

"melody for a single voice," 1775, from Italian aria, literally "air" (see air (n.1)).

Historically considered, the aria marks a single moment in the course of a dramatic action. The text often consists of but a few words, many times repeated (as we find in Handel's oratorios, etc.), and the musical development is the main thing. The opposite of aria is recitative (q.v.), in which the declamation of the syllables is the main thing, colored, perhaps, by means of clever orchestration. [W.S.B. Mathews and Emil Liebling, "Dictionary of Music," 1896]
airing (n.)
"action of exposing to air," c. 1600, verbal noun from air (v.). Meaning "display, public exposure" is from 1870.
aerate (v.)

"cause to mix with carbonic acid or other gas," 1794 (implied in aerated), from aer/aër (used in old science for specific kinds of air, a sense later given to gas (n.1)), from Latin aer (see air (n.1)) + verbal suffix -ate (2). Meaning "expose to air" is from 1799, probably a back-formation from aeration. Related: Aerating.

aeration (n.)

1570s, "act of exposing to air," from French aération, noun of action from aérer (v.), from Latin aer "the air, atmosphere" (see air (n.1)). In some cases, from aerate. In early scientific writing, aer/aër was used for specific kinds of air, a sense later given to gas (n.1).