Etymology
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Words related to age

*aiw- 

also *ayu-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "vital force, life; long life, eternity."

It forms all or part of: age; aught (n.1) "something; anything;" aye (adv.) "always, ever;" Ayurvedic; coetaneous; coeval; each; eon; eternal; eternity; ever; every; ewigkeit; hygiene; longevity; medieval; nay; never; no; primeval; sempiternal; tarnation; utopia

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit ayu- "life;" Avestan aiiu "age, life(time);" Greek aiōn "age, vital force; a period of existence, a lifetime, a generation; a long space of time," in plural, "eternity;" Latin aevum "space of time, eternity;" Gothic aiws "age, eternity," Old Norse ævi "lifetime," German ewig "everlasting," Old English a "ever, always."  

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aged (adj.)
mid-15c., "having lived long," mid-15c., past-participle adjective from age (v.). Meaning "having been allowed to get old" (of cheese, etc.) is by 1873. Meaning "of the age of" is from 1630s. Aged Parent is from "Great Expectations" (1860-61). Related: Agedness.
aging (n.)
also ageing, "process of imparting age or the qualities of age to," 1860, verbal noun from age (v.).
aet. 
"aged (some number of years)," abbreviation of Latin aetatis "of the age of," genitive singular of aetas "age" (see age (n.)). "Chiefly used in classic or scholarly epitaphs or obituaries" [Century Dictionary].
age-group (n.)
1876, originally a term in the science of demographics, from age (n.) + group (n.).
ageism (n.)
"discrimination against people based on age," coined 1969 by U.S. gerontologist Dr. Robert N. Butler, from age (n.) + -ism, on pattern of racism, sexism. Related: Ageist.
ageless (adj.)
1650s, "without age," from age (n.) + -less. Related: Agelessly; agelessness.
age-old (adj.)
1896, from age (n.) + old.
ice age (n.)
1855, from ice (n.) + age (n.). Perhaps translating German Eiszeit (1837). An earlier term in the same sense was glacial epoch (1841). Local scientific men had noticed from the late 18c. evidence that the Alpine glaciers once had been much larger; in the 1830s stray boulders, moraines, and polished bedrock in northern Europe (formerly interpreted as relics of catastrophic floods) began to be understood as revealing the former presence of a large ice cap there. When Agassiz, a convert to the theory, came to America in 1846 he found similar evidence in New England. The glacial theory and the notion that there had been several worldwide ice ages seems to have been generally accepted by the 1870s.
middle age (n.)

"period between youth and old age," formerly generally understood as 40 to 50, late 14c., from middle (adj.) + age (n.). The adjective middle-aged "having lived to the middle of the ordinary human lifespan, neither old nor young" is by c. 1600.