Etymology
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Words related to aftermath

after (adv., prep.)

Old English æfter "behind; later in time" (adv.); "behind in place; later than in time; in pursuit, following with intent to overtake" (prep.), from of "off" (see off (adv.)) + -ter, a comparative suffix; thus the original meaning was "more away, farther off." Compare Old Norse eptir "after," Old Frisian efter, Dutch achter, Old High German aftar, Gothic aftra "behind;" also see aft. Cognate with Greek apotero "farther off," Old Persian apataram "further."

From c. 1300 as "in imitation of." As a conjunction, "subsequent to the time that," from late Old English. After hours "hours after regular working hours" is from 1814. Afterwit "wisdom that comes too late" is attested from c. 1500 but seems to have fallen from use. After you as an expression in yielding precedence is recorded by 1650.

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*me- (4)

*mē-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cut down grass or grain." It forms all or part of: aftermath; math (n.2) "a mowing;" mead (n.2) "meadow;" meadow; mow (v.).

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek (poetic) amao, Latin metere "to reap, mow, crop;" Italian mietere, Old Irish meithleorai "reapers," Welsh medi; Old English mawan "to mow," mæd "meadow."

fog (n.2)
"long grass, second growth of grass after mowing," late 14c., probably of Scandinavian origin; compare Norwegian fogg "long grass in a moist hollow," Icelandic fuki "rotten sea grass." A connection to fog (n.1) via a notion of long grass growing in moist dells of northern Europe is tempting but not proven. Watkins suggests derivation from PIE *pu- (2) "to rot, decay" (see foul (adj.)).
math (n.2)

"a mowing, what is gathered from mowing," Old English mæð "mowing, cutting of grass," from Proto-Germanic *mediz (source also of Old Frisian meth, Old High German mad, German Mahd "mowing, hay crop"), from PIE root *me- (4) "to cut down grass or grain." Obsolete except in figurative aftermath.