1690s, "action of adjudging," from French adjudication or directly from Late Latin adiudicationem (nominative adiudicatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of adiudicare "grant or award as a judge" (see adjudge). From 1782 as "a judicial settlement."
late 14c., ajuge, "to make a judicial decision, decide by judicial opinion," from Old French ajugier "to judge, pass judgment on" (Modern French adjuger, the -d- was restored 14c. and English followed suit by 16c.), from Latin adiudicare "grant or award as a judge," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). Sense of "have an opinion" is from c. 1400. Related: Adjudged; adjudging.