Etymology
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adapter (n.)

1801, "one who adapts (something to something else)," agent noun from adapt. From 1808 as "mechanical means of adapting objects so they fit or work together" (originally of chemistry apparatus); electrical engineering sense is by 1907.

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Definitions of adapter

adapter (n.)
a musician who adapts a composition for particular voices or instruments or for another style of performance;
Synonyms: arranger / transcriber
adapter (n.)
device that enables something to be used in a way different from that for which it was intended or makes different pieces of apparatus compatible;
Synonyms: adaptor
From wordnet.princeton.edu