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absolute (adj.)

late 14c., "unrestricted, free from limitation; complete, perfect, free from imperfection;" also "not relative to something else" (mid-15c.), from Latin absolutus, past participle of absolvere "to set free, acquit; complete, bring to an end; make separate," from ab "off, away from" (see ab-) + solvere "to loosen, untie, release, detach," from PIE *se-lu-, from reflexive pronoun *s(w)e- (see idiom) + root *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart."

Sense evolution probably was from "detached, disengaged" to "perfect, pure." Meaning "despotic" (1610s) is from notion of "absolute in position;" absolute monarchy is recorded from 1735 (absolute king is recorded from 1610s). Grammatical sense is from late 14c.

Absolute magnitude (1902) is the brightness a star would have at a distance of 10 parsecs (or 32.6 light years); scientific absolute value is from 1907. As a noun in metaphysics, the absolute "that which is unconditional or free from restriction; the non-relative" is from 1809.

Origin and meaning of absolute

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Definitions of absolute from WordNet
1
absolute (adj.)
complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers;
absolute freedom
an absolute dimwit
Synonyms: downright / out-and-out / rank / right-down / sheer
absolute (adj.)
perfect or complete or pure;
absolute truth
absolute silence
absolute loyalty
absolute alcohol
absolute (adj.)
not limited by law;
an absolute monarch
absolute (adj.)
expressing finality with no implication of possible change;
an absolute guarantee to respect the nation's authority
absolute (adj.)
not capable of being violated or infringed;
Synonyms: infrangible / inviolable
2
absolute (n.)
something that is conceived or that exists independently and not in relation to other things; something that does not depend on anything else and is beyond human control; something that is not relative;
no mortal being can influence the absolute
From wordnet.princeton.edu