Words related to abridge


word-forming element expressing direction toward or in addition to, from Latin ad "to, toward" in space or time; "with regard to, in relation to," as a prefix, sometimes merely emphatic, from PIE root *ad- "to, near, at."

Simplified to a- before sc-, sp- and st-; modified to ac- before many consonants and then re-spelled af-, ag-, al-, etc., in conformity with the following consonant (as in affection, aggression). Also compare ap- (1).

In Old French, reduced to a- in all cases (an evolution already underway in Merovingian Latin), but written forms in French were refashioned after Latin in 14c. and English did likewise 15c. in words it had picked up from Old French. In many cases pronunciation followed the shift. Over-correction at the end of the Middle Ages in French and then English "restored" the -d- or a doubled consonant to some words that never had it (accursed, afford). The process went further in England than in France, where the vernacular sometimes resisted the pedantic, resulting in English adjourn, advance, address, advertisement (Modern French ajourner, avancer, adresser, avertissement). In modern word-formation sometimes ad- and ab- are regarded as opposites, but this was not in classical Latin.

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "short."

It forms all or part of: abbreviate; abbreviation; abridge; amphibrach; brace; bracelet; brachio-; brachiopod; brachiosaurus; brachy-; brassiere; breviary; brevity; brief; brumal; brume; embrace; merry; mirth; pretzel; vambrace.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek brakhys "short;" Latin brevis "short, low, little, shallow;" Old Church Slavonic bruzeja "shallow places, shoals;" Gothic gamaurgjan "to shorten."
abbreviate (v.)
Origin and meaning of abbreviate

mid-15c., "to make shorter," from Latin abbreviatus, past participle of abbreviare "to shorten, make brief," from ad "to" (see ad-) + breviare "shorten," from brevis "short, low, little, shallow" (from PIE root *mregh-u- "short").

Specifically of words by 1580s. Also sometimes 15c. abbrevy, from French abrevier (14c.), from Latin abbreviare. Related: Abbreviated; abbreviating.

assuage (v.)
"to soften," usually figuratively, of pain, anger, passion, grief, etc., c. 1300, from Anglo-French assuager, Old French assoagier "soften, moderate, alleviate, calm, soothe, pacify," from Vulgar Latin *adsuaviare, from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + suavis "sweet, agreeable," from PIE root *swād- "sweet, pleasant" (see sweet (adj.)). For sound development in French, compare deluge from Latin diluvium, abridge from abbreviare. Related: Assuaged; assuaging.
deluge (n.)

late 14c., "an overflowing of water, a great flood, Noah's Flood in Genesis," from Old French deluge (12c.), earlier deluve, from Latin diluvium "flood, inundation," from diluere "wash away," from dis- "away" (see dis-) + -luere, combining form of lavere "to wash" (from PIE root *leue- "to wash"). Figurative sense of "anything that overflows or floods" is from early 15c.

After me the deluge (F. après moi le déluge), a saying ascribed to Louis XV, who expressed thus his indifference to the results of his policy of selfish and reckless extravagance, and perhaps his apprehension of coming disaster. [Century Dictionary]
abridgement (n.)
early 15c., abreggement, "act of making shorter," also, of writing, "that which has been shortened," from Old French abregement, abrigement "shortening, abbreviation," from abregier "shorten, diminish" (see abridge). Verbal noun abridging is attested from late 14c. (abregging).
unabridged (adj.)
1590s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of abridge (v.). Since 19c. chiefly in reference to literary works.