Etymology
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Words related to a-

anacoluthon (n.)

"want of grammatical sequence; changing constructions in mid-clause," whether arbitrary or intentional, 1706, from Latinized form of Greek anakoluthon, neuter of anakolouthos "inconsequent," from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + akolouthos "following," from copulative prefix a- expressing union or likeness (see a- (3)) + keleuthos "way, road, track, path, course, journey," which is of unknown etymology. "As a figure of speech it has propriety and force only so far as it suggests that the emotion of the speaker is so great as to make him forget how he began his sentence" [Century Dictionary]. Related: Anacoluthic.

Anacoluthon, though a grammatical defect, is a rhetorical beauty, if naturally produced or imitated; as, "If thou art he—but oh ! how fallen!" "He who hath seen life in all its shapes, and fully knows its good and evil—No ! there is nothing on earth which can make a wise man desire a greater length of days than heaven appoints." These are instances in which the break down is the effect of emotion. [James R. Boyd, "Elements of English Composition," 1874]
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anomo- 

word-forming element meaning "irregular, unusual," from Greek anomos, from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + nomos "law," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."

anomy (n.)

"lawlessness, violation of (divine) law," 1590s, Englished from French anomie, from Greek anomia "lawlessness," abstract noun from anomos "without law, lawless," from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + nomos "law" (from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take").

aorist (n.)

1580s, the tense of Greek verbs that most closely corresponds to the simple past in English, from Greek aoristos (khronos) "indefinite (tense)," from aoristos "without boundaries, undefined, indefinite," from assimilated form of a- "not" (see a- (3)) + horistos "limited, defined," verbal adjective from horizein "to limit, define," from horos "boundary, limit, border" (see horizon). Related: Aoristic.

apathy (n.)

c. 1600, "freedom from suffering, passionless existence," from French apathie (16c.), from Latin apathia, from Greek apatheia "freedom from suffering, impassibility, want of sensation," from apathēs "without feeling, without suffering or having suffered," from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + pathos "emotion, feeling, suffering" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Originally a positive quality; the sense of "indolence of mind, indifference to what should excite" is by 1733.

aperiodic (adj.)

"without periodicity," 1874, from a- (3) "not" + periodic.

aphagia (n.)

"inability to swallow," 1854, from a- (3) "not, without" + abstract noun from Greek phagein "to eat" (from PIE root *bhag- "to share out, apportion; to get a share").

aphasia (n.)

in pathology, "loss of ability to speak," especially as result of brain injury or disorder, 1867, from Modern Latin aphasia, from Greek aphasia "speechlessness," abstract noun from a- "without" (see a- (3)) + phasis "utterance," from phanai "to speak," related to phēmē "voice, report, rumor" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").

APHASIA is the term which has recently been given to the loss of the faculty of articulate language, the organs of phonation and of articulation, as well as the intelligence, being unimpaired. The pathology of this affection is at the present time the subject of much discussion in the scientific world; the French Academy devoted several of their séances during the year 1865 to its special elucidation, and the Medical Journals of France and of our own country have lately contained a good deal of original matter bearing upon this obscure feature in cerebral pathology. [Frederic Bateman, M.D., "Aphasia," London, 1868]
aphonia (n.)

in pathology, "want of voice, loss of voice through some physical condition," 1778, from medical Latin aphonia, from Greek aphonia "speechlessness," abstract noun from aphonos "voiceless," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + phōnē "voice" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say") + abstract noun ending (see -ia). The Englished form aphony is attested from 1680s.

aphonic (adj.)

"having no sound," 1827, with -ic + Greek aphonos "voiceless," from a- "not, without" (see a- (3)) + phōnē "voice" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").

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