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second (adj., n.)

"next in order after the first; an ordinal numeral; being one of two equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" c. 1300, from Old French second, secont, and directly from Latin secundus "following, next in time or order," also "secondary, subordinate, inferior," from PIE *sekw-ondo-, pariticipal form of root *sekw- "to follow."

Replaced native other in this sense because of the ambiguity of the earlier word. Second sight is from 1610s; an etymologically perverse term, because it means in reality the sight of events before, not after, they occur. Second fiddle is attested by 1809:

A metaphor borrowed from a musical performer who plays the second or counter to one who plays the first or the "air." [Bartlett, "Dictionary of Americanisms," 1848]

second (n.1)

"one-sixtieth of a minute of degree," also "sixtieth part of a minute of time," late 14c. in geometry, from Old French seconde, from Medieval Latin secunda, short for secunda pars minuta "second diminished part," the result of the second division of the hour by sixty (the first being the "prime minute," now called the minute), from Latin secunda, fem. of secundus "following, next in time or order" (see second (adj.)). The second hand of a clock is attested from 1759.

second (v.)

1580s, "to support or represent in a duel, fight, etc.," from French seconder, from Latin secundare "to assist, make favorable," from secundus "assisting, favorable, following, second" (see second (adj.)). The parliamentary sense is first recorded 1590s. Related: Seconded; seconding.

second (n.2)

"assistant, supporter," 1580s, from second (v.).

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Definitions of second from WordNet
1
second (n.)
1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites;
Synonyms: sec / s
second (n.)
an indefinitely short time;
Synonyms: moment / mo / minute / bit
second (n.)
the fielding position of the player on a baseball team who is stationed near the second of the bases in the infield;
Synonyms: second base
second (n.)
a particular point in time;
Synonyms: moment / minute / instant
second (n.)
following the first in an ordering or series;
he came in a close second
second (n.)
a 60th part of a minute of arc;
the treasure is 2 minutes and 45 seconds south of here
Synonyms: arcsecond
second (n.)
the official attendant of a contestant in a duel or boxing match;
second (n.)
a speech seconding a motion;
do I hear a second?
second (n.)
the gear that has the second lowest forward gear ratio in the gear box of a motor vehicle;
he had to shift down into second to make the hill
Synonyms: second gear
second (n.)
merchandise that has imperfections; usually sold at a reduced price without the brand name;
Synonyms: irregular
2
second (v.)
give support or one's approval to;
I'll second that motion
Synonyms: back / endorse / indorse
second (v.)
transfer an employee to a different, temporary assignment;
The officer was seconded for duty overseas
3
second (adj.)
coming next after the first in position in space or time or degree or magnitude;
Synonyms: nd / d
second (adj.)
a part or voice or instrument or orchestra section lower in pitch than or subordinate to the first;
second flute
the second violins
4
second (adv.)
in the second place;
second, we must consider the economy
Synonyms: secondly
From wordnet.princeton.edu