late 14c., originally medical, from Latin ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from past participle stem of rumpere "to break," from PIE root *runp- "to break" (see corrupt (adj.)). Specifically as "abdominal hernia" from early 15c.
1739, from rupture (n.). Related: Ruptured; rupturing. Ruptured duck (1945) was U.S. GI's dismissive term (based on its design) for the discharge button they were awarded.