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ration (n.)

1550, "the mental process of reasoning," later, "the relation of one number to another" (1660s), then "fixed allowance of food or other means of subsistence for a fixed period of time" (1702, often rations, from French ration in this sense).

All are from Latin rationem (nominative ratio) "reckoning, numbering, calculation; business affair, procedure," also "reason, reasoning, judgment, understanding," in Medieval Latin "a computed share or allowance of food." This is from rat-, past participle stem of reri "to reckon, calculate," also "think" (from PIE root *re- "to reason, count").

The first sense listed for the English word is obsolete; the second has gone with ratio. The military pronunciation (rhymes with fashion) took over in English from the preferred civilian pronunciation (rhymes with nation) during World War I. That war also gave the word a specific sense of "officially limited allowance for civilians in times of war or dearth" (by 1917).

ration (v.)

"put (someone) on a fixed allowance," 1859, from ration (n.); sense of "divide into rations, apportion in fixed amounts" is from 1870. Related: Rationed; rationing. Middle English racionable (late 15c.) meant "reasonable."

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Definitions of ration from WordNet
1
ration (v.)
restrict the consumption of a relatively scarce commodity, as during war;
Bread was rationed during the siege of the city
ration (v.)
distribute in rations, as in the army;
Cigarettes are rationed
Synonyms: ration out
2
ration (n.)
the food allowance for one day (especially for service personnel);
the rations should be nutritionally balanced
ration (n.)
a fixed portion that is allotted (especially in times of scarcity);
From wordnet.princeton.edu