Etymology
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Words related to Pomona

apple (n.)

Old English æppel "apple; any kind of fruit; fruit in general," from Proto-Germanic *ap(a)laz (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Dutch appel, Old Norse eple, Old High German apful, German Apfel), from PIE *ab(e)l- "apple" (source also of Gaulish avallo "fruit;" Old Irish ubull, Lithuanian obuolys, Old Church Slavonic jabloko "apple"), but the exact relation and original sense of these is uncertain (compare melon).

A roted eppel amang þe holen, makeþ rotie þe yzounde. ["Ayenbite of Inwit," 1340]

In Middle English and as late as 17c., it was a generic term for all fruit other than berries but including nuts (such as Old English fingeræppla "dates," literally "finger-apples;" Middle English appel of paradis "banana," c. 1400). Hence its grafting onto the unnamed "fruit of the forbidden tree" in Genesis. Cucumbers, in one Old English work, are eorþæppla, literally "earth-apples" (compare French pomme de terre "potato," literally "earth-apple;" see also melon). French pomme is from Latin pomum "apple; fruit" (see Pomona).

As far as the forbidden fruit is concerned, again, the Quran does not mention it explicitly, but according to traditional commentaries it was not an apple, as believed by Christians and Jews, but wheat. [Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity," 2002]

Apple of Discord (c. 1400) was thrown into the wedding of Thetis and Peleus by Eris (goddess of chaos and discord), who had not been invited, and inscribed kallisti "To the Prettiest One." Paris, elected to choose which goddess should have it, gave it to Aphrodite, offending Hera and Athene, with consequences of the Trojan War, etc.

Apple of one's eye (Old English), symbol of what is most cherished, was the pupil, supposed to be a globular solid body. Apple-polisher "one who curries favor" first attested 1928 in student slang. The image in the phrase upset the apple cart "spoil the undertaking" is attested from 1788. Road-apple "horse dropping" is from 1942.

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pomace (n.)

mid-15c., pomis, "pulp of apples or similar fruits crushed by grinding, cider," from Medieval Latin pomacium or Old French pomaz, plural of pome "cider; apple," from Latin pomum "fruit; apple" (see Pomona).

pomaceous (adj.)

"consisting of or resembling pomace," 1706, from Vulgar Latin *poma "apple," originally plural of Latin pomus "fruit," later "apple" (see Pomona) + -aceous.

pomade (n.)

1560s, "a perfumed ointment, especially as used for the scalp and in dressing the hair," from French pommade "an ointment" (16c.), from Italian pomata, from pomo "apple," from Latin pomum "fruit; apple" (see Pomona). So called because the original ointment recipe contained mashed apples. It is attested late 14c. as "a kind if cider or other drink made from apples."

pomander (n.)

late 15c., pomendambre, "mix of aromatic herbs in a bag or perforated apple-shaped shell, carried or worn around the neck as a preservative against infection," from Old French pomme d'embre (13c.), from pome "apple" (from Latin pomum; see Pomona) + ambre "amber" (see amber). By mid-20c. the word was used for an orange stuck with cloves and hung in a wardrobe or placed in a drawer with clothing.

pome (n.)

"an apple, a fruit of the apple kind, apple-shaped object," late 14c., from Old French pome "apple" (12c., Modern French pomme) and directly from Late Latin or Vulgar Latin *poma "apple," originally plural of Latin pomus "fruit," later "apple" (see Pomona).

pomegranate (n.)

c. 1300, poumgarnet (a metathesized form), "the large, roundish, many-seeded, red-pulped fruit of the pomegranate tree," from Old French pome grenate (Modern French grenade) and directly from Medieval Latin pomum granatum, literally "apple with many seeds," from pome "apple; fruit" (see Pomona) + grenate "having grains," from Latin granata, fem. of granatus, from granum "grain" (from PIE root *gre-no- "grain").

The classical Latin name was mālum granatum "seeded apple" or mālum Punicum "Punic apple." Italian form is granata, Spanish is granada. The -gra- spelling was restored in English early 15c. Of the tree itself from late 14c.

pomelo (n.)

"grapefruit-like fruit," 1858, of uncertain origin; apparently related to Latin pomum "fruit; apple" (see Pomona).

pomiculture (n.)

"the art or practice of fruit-growing," by 1852, probably from French pomiculture (1830), from Latin pomus "fruit" (see Pomona); also see culture (n.).

pommel (n.)

mid-13c., pomel, "ornamental knob or ball, decorative boss;" c. 1300, "knob at the end of the handle of a sword hilt or the grip of a dagger," from Old French pomel (12c., Modern French pommeau), "rounded knob," diminutive of pom "hilt of a sword," and directly from Medieval Latin pomellum, diminutive of Latin pomum "apple" (see Pomona), the connecting notion being "roundness." It serves to keep the hand from slipping and for striking a heavy blow at an adversary too close for the sweep of the weapon.

The sense of "front peak of a saddle" is recorded from mid-15c. In 15c.-16c. poetry it also sometimes meant "a woman's breast." The gymnast's pommel horse "vaulting horse" is so called by 1908, for the removable handles, which resemble pommels of a saddle (and were called pommels by 1887).