Etymology
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Mongolian

1738 (adj.) "pertaining to Mongols;" 1839 (n.) "the language of the Mongols," 1846 "a native of Mongolia;" from Mongol + -ian. As a racial classification for Asiatic peoples (including Chinese, Japanese, Turks, Vietnamese, Lapps, Eskimos, etc.) "belonging to the yellow-skinned straight-haired type of mankind" [OED] in J.F. Blumenbach's system, it is attested in English by 1825 in translations of his works.

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Definitions of Mongolian
1
Mongolian (n.)
a family of Altaic language spoken in Mongolia;
Synonyms: Mongolic / Mongolic language
Mongolian (n.)
a member of the nomadic peoples of Mongolia;
Synonyms: Mongol
2
Mongolian (adj.)
of or relating to the modern Mongolian People's Republic;
Mongolian (adj.)
of or relating to the region of Mongolia or its people or their languages or cultures;
Synonyms: Mongol
From wordnet.princeton.edu