1738 (n.) "one of a people of Mongolia and adjacent regions;" 1763 (adj.), from a native name, said to be from mong "brave." Related: Mongolia.
Entries linking to Mongol
"powerful person," 1670s, from Great Mogul (1580s), the common designation among Europeans for the Mongol emperor of India after the conquest of 1520s, from Persian and Arabic mughal, mughul, alteration of Mongol (q.v.), the Asiatic people. As a name for the best quality of playing cards, by 1742, so called for the design on the back.
A Motion was made on behalf of the plaintiff for an injunction to restrain the defendant from making use of the Great Mogul as a stamp upon his cards, to the prejudice of the plaintiff, upon a suggestion, that the plaintiff had the sole right to this stamp, having appropriated it to himself, conformable to the charter granted to the card-makers' company by King Charles the First [Blanchard versus Hill, High Court of Chancery, Dec. 18, 1742]
1738 (adj.) "pertaining to Mongols;" 1839 (n.) "the language of the Mongols," 1846 "a native of Mongolia;" from Mongol + -ian. As a racial classification for Asiatic peoples (including Chinese, Japanese, Turks, Vietnamese, Lapps, Eskimos, etc.) "belonging to the yellow-skinned straight-haired type of mankind" [OED] in J.F. Blumenbach's system, it is attested in English by 1825 in translations of his works.
1868, adj. and noun, as a racial designation, literally "resembling the Mongols," from Mongol + -oid. Compare Mongolian. In reference to the genetic defect causing mental retardation (mongolism), by 1899, from the typical facial appearance of those who have it. See Down's Syndrome. Such people were called Mongolian from 1866.