Etymology
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Missouri

originally a name for a group of native peoples among Chiwere (Siouan) tribes, from an Algonquian word recorded c. 1700, said to mean literally "people of the big canoes." Formed as a U.S. territory in 1812 (out of the whole of the Louisiana Purchase not admitted that year as the state of Louisiana); admitted as a state 1821.

In U.S. history, the Missouri Compromise (1820) in Congress admitted Missouri as a slave state, along with Maine as a free one, but set a line westward from the main southern boundary of Missouri above which no new states would be admitted with slavery. The expression I'm from Missouri, you'll have to show me is attested from at least c. 1880. Related: Missourian.

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Definitions of Missouri

Missouri (n.)
a midwestern state in central United States; a border state during the American Civil War, Missouri was admitted to the Confederacy without actually seceding from the Union;
Synonyms: Show Me State / mo / Mo.
Missouri (n.)
the longest river in the United States; arises in Montana and flows southeastward to become a tributary of the Mississippi at Saint Louis;
Synonyms: Missouri River
Missouri (n.)
a member of the Siouan people formerly inhabiting the valley of the Missouri river in Missouri;
Missouri (n.)
a dialect of the Chiwere language spoken by the Missouri;
From wordnet.princeton.edu