ancient country of Asia Minor bordering the Aegean. It was an empire under Croesus, famous for his wealth. The name is from a supposed ancestor Ludos. The people also figure, as Ludim, in the Old Testament (Genesis x.13), which seems to have sometimes confused them with the Libyans. Related: Lydian, attested from 1540s as a noun, 1580s as an adjective, and 1570s as a musical mode.

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Definitions of Lydia from WordNet

Lydia (n.)
an ancient region on the coast of western Asia Minor; a powerful kingdom until conquered by the Persians in 546 BC;