fall (v.)

Old English feallan (class VII strong verb; past tense feoll, past participle feallen) "to drop from a height; fail, decay, die," from Proto-Germanic *fallanan (source also of Old Frisian falla, Old Saxon fallan, Dutch vallen, Old Norse falla, Old High German fallan, German fallen, absent in Gothic).

These are from PIE root *pol- "to fall" (source also of Armenian p'ul "downfall," Lithuanian puolu, pulti "to fall," Old Prussian aupallai "finds," literally "falls upon").

Meaning "come suddenly to the ground" is from late Old English. Of darkness, night, from c. 1600; of land sloping from 1570s; of prices from 1570s. Of empires, governments, etc., from c. 1200. Of the face or countenance from late 14c. Meaning "to be reduced" (as temperature) is from 1650s. Meaning "die in battle" is from 1570s. Meaning "to pass casually (into some condition)" is from early 13c.

To fall in "take place or position" is from 1751. To fall in love is attested from 1520s; to fall asleep is late 14c. To fall down is early 13c. (a-dun follon); to fall behind is from 1856. Fall through "fail, come to nothing" is from 1781. To fall for something is from 1903.

To fall out is by mid-13c. in a literal sense; military use is from 1832. Meaning "have a disagreement, begin to quarrel" is attested from 1560s (to fall out with "quarrel with" is from late 15c.).

fall (n.)

c. 1200, "a falling to the ground; a dropping from a height, a descent from a higher to a lower position (as by gravity); a collapsing of a building," from Proto-Germanic *falliz, from the source of fall (n.). (Old English noun fealle meant "snare, trap.") Meaning "a sinking down, subsidence" Of the coming of night from 1650s. Meaning "downward direction of a surface" is from 1560s, of a value from 1550s. Theological sense, "a succumbing to sin or temptation" (especially of Adam and Eve) is from early 13c.

Sense of "autumn" (now only in U.S. but formerly common in England) is by 1660s, short for fall of the leaf (1540s). Meaning "cascade, waterfall" is from 1570s (often plural, falls, when the descent is in stages; fall of water is attested from mid-15c.). Wrestling sense is from 1550s. Of a city under siege, etc., 1580s. Fall guy is from 1906.

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Definitions of fall from WordNet
fall (v.)
descend in free fall under the influence of gravity;
The branch fell from the tree
The unfortunate hiker fell into a crevasse
fall (v.)
move downward and lower, but not necessarily all the way;
The barometer is falling
Her hand went up and then fell again
The curtain fell on the diva
Synonyms: descend / go down / come down
fall (v.)
pass suddenly and passively into a state of body or mind;
They fell out of favor
fall prey to an imposter
fall asleep
fall into a strange way of thinking
fall into a trap
She fell ill
she fell to pieces after she lost her work
fall (v.)
come under, be classified or included;
fall into a category
Synonyms: come
fall (v.)
fall from clouds;
rain, snow and sleet were falling
Synonyms: precipitate / come down
fall (v.)
suffer defeat, failure, or ruin;
We must stand or fall
fall by the wayside
fall (v.)
die, as in battle or in a hunt;
The shooting victim fell dead
Many soldiers fell at Verdun
Several deer have fallen to the same gun
fall (v.)
touch or seem as if touching visually or audibly;
Light fell on her face
Synonyms: shine / strike
fall (v.)
be captured;
The cities fell to the enemy
fall (v.)
occur at a specified time or place;
Christmas falls on a Monday this year
The accent falls on the first syllable
fall (v.)
decrease in size, extent, or range;
her weight fell to under a hundred pounds
his voice fell to a whisper
The cabin pressure fell dramatically
Synonyms: decrease / diminish / lessen
fall (v.)
yield to temptation or sin;
Adam and Eve fell
fall (v.)
lose office or power;
The government fell overnight
The Qing Dynasty fell with Sun Yat-sen
fall (v.)
to be given by assignment or distribution;
The onus fell on us
The pressure to succeed fell on the youngest student
The most difficult task fell on the youngest member of the team
fall (v.)
move in a specified direction;
The line of men fall forward
fall (v.)
be due;
payments fall on the 1st of the month
fall (v.)
lose one's chastity;
a fallen woman
fall (v.)
to be given by right or inheritance;
The estate fell to the oldest daughter
fall (v.)
come into the possession of;
Synonyms: accrue
fall (v.)
fall to somebody by assignment or lot;
The task fell to me
It fell to me to notify the parents of the victims
Synonyms: light
fall (v.)
be inherited by;
The estate fell to my sister
Synonyms: return / pass / devolve
fall (v.)
slope downward;
The hills around here fall towards the ocean
fall (v.)
lose an upright position suddenly;
The vase fell over and the water spilled onto the table
Her hair fell across her forehead
Synonyms: fall down
fall (v.)
drop oneself to a lower or less erect position;
He fell to his knees
She fell back in her chair
fall (v.)
fall or flow in a certain way;
Synonyms: hang / flow
fall (v.)
assume a disappointed or sad expression;
Her face fell when she heard that she would be laid off
his crest fell
fall (v.)
be cast down;
his eyes fell
fall (v.)
come out; issue;
silly phrases fell from her mouth
fall (v.)
be born, used chiefly of lambs;
The lambs fell in the afternoon
fall (v.)
begin vigorously;
The prisoners fell to work right away
fall (v.)
go as if by falling;
Grief fell from our hearts
fall (v.)
come as if by falling;
Night fell
Silence fell
Synonyms: descend / settle
fall (n.)
the season when the leaves fall from the trees;
in the fall of 1973
Synonyms: autumn
fall (n.)
a sudden drop from an upright position;
Synonyms: spill / tumble
fall (n.)
a downward slope or bend;
Synonyms: descent / declivity / decline / declination / declension / downslope
fall (n.)
a lapse into sin; a loss of innocence or of chastity;
a fall from virtue
fall (n.)
a sudden decline in strength or number or importance;
the fall of the House of Hapsburg
Synonyms: downfall
fall (n.)
a movement downward;
the rise and fall of the tides
fall (n.)
the act of surrendering (usually under agreed conditions);
Synonyms: capitulation / surrender
fall (n.)
the time of day immediately following sunset;
they finished before the fall of night
Synonyms: twilight / dusk / gloaming / gloam / nightfall / evenfall / crepuscule / crepuscle
fall (n.)
when a wrestler's shoulders are forced to the mat;
Synonyms: pin
fall (n.)
a free and rapid descent by the force of gravity;
Synonyms: drop
fall (n.)
a sudden sharp decrease in some quantity;
when that became known the price of their stock went into free fall
Synonyms: drop / dip / free fall
Fall (n.)
the lapse of mankind into sinfulness because of the sin of Adam and Eve;