Etymology
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Words related to Carl

churl (n.)

Old English ceorl "peasant, one of the lowest class of freemen, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (source also of Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").

It had various meaning in early Middle English, including "man of the common people," "a country man," "husbandman," "free peasant;" by 1300, it meant "bondman, villain," also "fellow of low birth or rude manners."

For words for "common man" that acquire an insulting flavor over time, compare boor, villain. In this case, however, the same word also has come to mean "king" in many languages (such as Lithuanian karalius, Czech kral, Polish król) via Charlemagne.

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Carla 
fem. proper name, fem. of Carl.
Carol 
masc. proper name, from Medieval Latin Carolus, which is of Germanic origin, from the common noun meaning "man, husband" (see carl). As a fem. proper name, an abbreviation of Caroline. The masc. name never has been popular in U.S.; the fem. form was common after c. 1900 and was a top-10 name for U.S. girls born 1936-1950.
caroline (adj.)
1650s, "of or pertaining to a Charles," from French, from Medieval Latin Carolus "Charles" (a name from the common Germanic noun meaning "man, husband;" see carl). Especially of Charlemagne, or, in English history, Charles I and Charles II.
Carolingian (adj.)
1881, "belonging to the Frankish royal and imperial dynasty founded by Charles Martel, from Medieval Latin Carolus "Charles" (a name from the common Germanic noun meaning "man, husband;" see carl). Also compare Carlovingian.
Charles 
masc. proper name, from French Charles, from Medieval Latin Carolus, from Middle High German Karl, literally "man, husband" (see carl).