Etymology
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cancer (n.)

Old English cancer "spreading sore, malignant tumor" (also canceradl), from Latin cancer "a crab," later, "malignant tumor," from Greek karkinos, which, like the Modern English word, has three meanings: a crab, a tumor, and the zodiac constellation represented by a crab, from PIE *karkro-, reduplicated form of root *kar- "hard."

Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen, among others, noted similarity of crabs to some tumors with swollen veins. The Old English word was displaced by French-influenced doublet canker but was reintroduced in the modern medical sense c. 1600. In reference to the zodiac sign from late Old English; meaning "person born under the zodiac sign of Cancer" is from 1894. The sun being in Cancer at the summer solstice, the constellation had association in Latin writers with the south and with summer heat. Cancer stick "cigarette" is from 1959.

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Definitions of cancer
1
cancer (n.)
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream;
Synonyms: malignant neoplastic disease
2
Cancer (n.)
(astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer;
Synonyms: Crab
Cancer (n.)
a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini;
Cancer (n.)
the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22;
Synonyms: Cancer the Crab / Crab
Cancer (n.)
type genus of the family Cancridae;
Synonyms: genus Cancer
From wordnet.princeton.edu