Etymology
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C

third letter of the alphabet. Alphabetic writing came to Rome via the southern Etruscan "Caeretan" script, in which gamma was written as a crescent. Early Romans made little use of Greek kappa and used gamma for both the "g" and "k" sounds, the latter more frequently, so that the "k" sound came to be seen as the proper one for gamma. Classical Latin -c-, with only the value "k," passed to Celtic and, via missionary Irish monks, to the Anglo-Saxons. Also see cee.

In some Old English words, before some vowels and in certain positions, -c- had a "ts" sound that was respelled ch- in Middle English by French scribes (chest, cheese, church; see ch). In Old English -k- was known but little used.

Meanwhile, in Old French, many "k" sounds drifted to "ts" and by 13c., "s," but still were written -c-. Thus the 1066 invasion brought to the English language a flood of French and Latin words in which -c- represented "s" (as in cease, ceiling, circle) and a more vigorous use of -k- to distinguish that sound. By 15c. even native English words with -s- were being respelled with -c- for "s" (ice, mice, lice).

In some English words from Italian, the -c- has a "ch" sound (via a sound evolution somewhat like the Old French one). In German, -c- in loanwords was regularized to -k- or -z- (depending on pronunciation) in the international spelling reform of 1901, which was based on the Duden guide of 1880.

As a symbol in the Roman numeral system, "one hundred;" the symbol originally was a Greek theta, but was later reduced in form and understood to stand for centum. In music, it is the name of the keynote of the natural scale, though the exact pitch varied in time and place 18c. and 19c. from 240 vibrations per second to 275; it wasn't entirely regularized (at 261.63) until the adoption of the A440 standard in the 1930s. C-spring as a type of carriage spring is from 1794, so called for its shape.

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Definitions of C
1
c (n.)
a degree on the centigrade scale of temperature;
Synonyms: degree centigrade / degree Celsius
c (n.)
the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second;
Synonyms: speed of light / light speed
c (n.)
a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy;
Synonyms: vitamin C / ascorbic acid
c (n.)
a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine;
Synonyms: cytosine
c (n.)
an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds;
Synonyms: carbon / atomic number "
c (n.)
ten 10s;
Synonyms: hundred / " / century / one C
c (n.)
a unit of electrical charge equal to the amount of charge transferred by a current of 1 ampere in 1 second;
Synonyms: coulomb / ampere-second
c (n.)
a general-purpose programing language closely associated with the UNIX operating system;
c (n.)
(music) the keynote of the scale of C major;
c (n.)
street names for cocaine;
Synonyms: coke / blow / nose candy / snow
c (n.)
one of the four nucleotides used in building DNA; all four nucleotides have a common phosphate group and a sugar (ribose);
Synonyms: deoxycytidine monophosphate
2
c (adj.)
being ten more than ninety;
Synonyms: hundred / one hundred / "
From wordnet.princeton.edu