Etymology
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Words related to -ian

Palestinian 

1875 (adj.) "of or pertaining to the Holy Land;" 1905 (n.) "an inhabitant of Palestine," from Palestine + -ian. Also in early use with reference to Jews who settled or advocated Jewish settlement in that place.

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parliamentarian (n.)

1640s as a designation of one of the sides in the English Civil War (a partisan or supporter of Parliament as opposed to the King); meaning "one versed in parliamentary procedure" dates from 1834. See parliamentary + -ian.

pediatrician (n.)

"specialist or expert in pediatrics," 1884, from pediatric + -ian.

politician (n.)

1580s, "person skilled in politics;" see politics + -ian. Especially "one engaged in party politics, especially as a trade; one who promotes the interests of a political party," and thus it quickly took on overtones, not typically good ones: "one concerned with public affairs for the sake of profit or of a clique." Johnson defines it as "A man of artifice; one of deep contrivance."

The notion of enlightened, disinterested, and high-minded service to the state goes with statesman (Century Dictionary notes that "A man, however, would not properly be called a statesman unless he were also of eminent ability in public affairs"). For "student of political science," by way of distinction, politicist (1869) has been used.

post-Christian (adj.)

by 1807 as "after the lifetime of Christ," from post- + Christ + -ian; by 1929 as "after the decline or rejection of Christianity," from Christian.

precisian (n.)

"one devoted to precision," 1570s, from precise + -ian on model of Christian, etc., or from or based on French précisien. Especially "one who adhered punctiliously to rules or doctrines." Precisionist in the same sense is by 1827.

proletarian 

1650s (n.) "member of the lowest or poorest class of a community;" 1660s (adj.) "of or belonging to the lowest class of people," hence "mean, vile, vulgar;" with -ian + Latin proletarius "citizen of the lowest class" (as an adjective, "relating to offspring"), from proles "offspring, progeny" (see prolific). In ancient Rome, according to the traditional division of the state, the proletarius was one of the propertyless people, exempted from taxes and military service, who served the state only by having children. The modern political sense of proletarian is by 1851.

reptilian (adj.)

"of, resembling, or characteristic of reptiles," 1835, from reptile + -ian. Transferred meaning "malignant, cold, underhanded" is by 1859.

salutatorian (n.)
1841, American English, from salutatory "of the nature of a salutation," here in the specific sense "designating the welcoming address given at a college commencement" (1702) + -ian. The address was originally usually in Latin and given by the second-ranking graduating student.
Scandinavian (adj.)
1784; see Scandinavia + -ian. From 1830 as a noun; 1959 in reference to furniture and decor. In U.S. colloquial use sometimes Scandahoovian (1929), Scandiwegian. Alternative adjective Scandian (1660s) is from Latin Scandia.

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