Etymology
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Words related to -graph

logograph (n.)
"instrument for giving a graphic representation of speech, word-writer," 1879, from logo- "word" + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." Earliest use (1797) is in the sense "logogriph," and it frequently was used in place of that word (see logogriph). In ancient Greek, logographos was "prose-writer, chronicler, speech-writer." Related: Logographic.
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mimeograph (n.)

1889, "type of copying machine that reproduces from a stencil," invented by Edison, from Greek mimeisthai "to mimic, represent, imitate, portray" (from mimos "mime, imitator;" see mime (n.)) + -graph. A proprietary name from 1903 to 1948. The verb meaning "to reproduce by means of a mimeograph" is attested by 1895. Related: Mimeographed; mimeographing.

monograph (n.)

"treatise on a single subject, account or description of a single thing," 1805, from mono- "single" + -graph "something written." Earlier in this sense was monography (1773). Related: Monographic; monographist; monographer (1770).

phonograph (n.)

1835, "character representing a sound, a character used in phonography," from phono- "sound" + -graph in the sense of "something written." This older sense was rare and is obsolete.

The meaning "an instrument that produces sounds from recordings" (talking phonograph, invented by Thomas A. Edison) is attested from 1877, with -graph more in the sense of "instrument for recording." "In Britain the word is retained only for early cylinder machines, but in N. Amer. it has become synonymous with record player, record deck, etc., corresponding to British gramophone" [OED].

The recording made from it at first was called a phonogram (1879).  An earlier instrument for registering the vibrations of a sounding body was the phonautograph (1859, from French phonautographe, 1855).

You see that Edison's machine is more than a phonograph, or sound writer ; it is really a reproducer or regenerator of sound, for which a proper name would be “Palingenophone.” This is the name by which it should become known. Hitherto it has simply been called a phonograph. [Louis Elsberg, “The Throat and Its Functions,” New York: 1880]
photograph (n.)

"a picture obtained by any process of photography," 1839, coined by English polymath and photography pioneer Sir John Herschel (son of the astronomer) from photo- "light" + -graph "something written."

It won out over other suggestions, such as photogene and heliograph. Photogram (1859), based on telegram, did not catch on. Neo-Anglo-Saxonists prefer sunprint; and sun-picture (1846) was an early Englishing of the word. The verb is first found (along with photography and photographic) in a paper Herschel read before the Royal Society on March 14, 1839. Related: Photographed; photographing.

pictograph (n.)

"pictorial symbol, picture or symbol representing an idea," 1851, from picto-, combining form of Latin pictus "painted," past participle of pingere "to paint" (see paint (v.)) + -graph "something written." First used in reference to American Indian writing. Related: Pictography; pictographic.

psychographic (adj.)

also psycho-graphic, "of or pertaining to psychography," 1856, from psychograph "supernatural photographic image or device" (1854)  from psycho- + -graph. Also see psychography. Related: Psychographics.

—What next? Among the new patents announced is one to Adolphus Theodore Wagner, of Berlin, in the kingdom of Prussia, professor of music, for the invention of a "psychograph, or apparatus for indicating a person's thoughts by the agency of nervous electricity." [Arthur's Home Magazine, May 1854]
radiography (n.)

1896, "science or process of making images of objects on a sensitive plate by means of x-rays," from radiograph, the word for such an image-making device; from radio-, combining form of radiation, + -graph. Radiograph was used earlier as "device to measure and record the intensity of sunshine" (1880).

seismograph (n.)
"instrument for measuring the motions of an earthquake," 1858, from seismo- + -graph. Based on Italian sismografo, coined and invented by Luigi Palmieri (1807-1896), director of meteorological observation on Mount Vesuvius. Related: Seismographic; seismography (1865).
spectrograph (n.)
1876, from spectro- + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." Related: Spectrographic; spectrography.

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