Words related to -en

brighten (v.)

Middle English brightenen, from Old English *beorhtnian "make bright" (see bright (adj.) + -en (1)). The intransitive sense of "become brighter" is attested from c. 1300. The figurative meaning "dispel gloom from, cheer" is from 1590s. Related: Brightened; brightening. The simple verb bright (Old English byrhtan "be bright," geberhtan "make bright") was in Middle English, often in figurative senses "cleanse, purify; clarify, explain," but has become obsolete.

broaden (v.)

1726, "make broad;" 1727, "grow broad;" from broad (adj.) + -en (1). The word seems no older than this (it was cited by Johnson in one of James Thomson's "Seasons" poems); broadened also is first found in the same poet. Broadening is recorded from 1835 as a noun, 1850 as a present-participle adjective.

chasten (v.)

"inflict trouble or pain on for the purpose of correction," 1520s, with -en (1) + the word it replaced, obsolete verb chaste "to correct (someone's) behavior" (Middle English chastien, c. 1200), from Old French chastiier "to punish" (see chastise). Now chiefly in reference to moral discipline, divine rather than corporal punishment. Related: Chastened; chastening.

Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth [Hebrews xii.6]
cheapen (v.)

1570s, "ask the price of" (obsolete), from cheap (adj.), itself from a verb, but that had largely died out by 16c., + -en (1). The meaning "lower the price of" is from 1833, but figuratively, "to lower in estimation" it is from 1650s. Related: Cheapened; cheapening.

dampen (v.)

1630s, "to dull or deaden, make weak" (force, enthusiasm, ardor, etc.), from damp (adj.) + -en (1). Meaning "to moisten, make humid" is recorded from 1827. Related: Dampened; dampening.

deaden (v.)

1660s "deprive of or diminish (some quality), to make dead (figuratively)," from dead (adj.) + -en (1). Earlier the verb was simply dead. Related: Deadened; deadening.

deafen (v.)

1590s, "to make deaf," from deaf + -en (1). The earlier verb was simply deaf (mid-15c.). For "to become deaf, to grow deaf," Old English had adeafian (intransitive), which survived into Middle English as deave but then took on a transitive sense from mid-14c. and sank from use except in dialects (where it mostly has transitive and figurative senses), leaving English without an intransitive verb here. Related: Deafened.

deepen (v.)

c. 1600, transitive, "to make deep or deeper," from deep (adj.) + -en (1). Intransitive sense of "become deep or deeper" is from 1690s. Related: Deepened; deepening. The earlier verb had been simply deep (Middle English deopen), from Old English diepan.

embiggen (v.)

"to magnify, make larger," 1884; see em- + big (adj.) + -en (1). 

embolden (v.)

"give boldness or courage to," 1570s, from em- (1) + bold + -en (1). Or perhaps an extended form of earlier embold, enbold (late 14c.). Related: Emboldened; emboldening.

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