Words related to *sker-

arrange (v.)

late 14c., arengen, "draw up a line of battle," from Old French arengier "put in a row, put in battle order" (12c., Modern French arranger), from a- "to" (see ad-) + rangier "set in a row" (Modern French ranger), from rang "rank," from Frankish *hring or a similar Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *hringaz "something curved, circle," from nasalized form of PIE root *sker- (2) "to turn, bend."

A rare word until the meaning generalized to "to place things in order" c. 1780-1800. Meaning "come to an agreement or understanding" is by 1786. Musical sense of "adapt for other instruments or voices" is from 1808. Related: Arranged; arranging. Arranged marriage attested from 1854.

circa (adv.)

"about, at or near (a given date)" when the exact time is unknown, 1856, from Latin circa (adv., prep.) "around, round about, near; in the region of; about the time of," alternative form of circum "round about" (see circum-).

circadian (adj.)

coined 1959 by German-born biologist Franz Halberg, from Latin circa "about" (alternative form of circum "round about;" see circum-) + diem, accusative singular of dies "day" (from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine"). The original use is in circadian rhythm.

circle (n.)

c. 1300, "figure of a circle, a plane figure whose periphery is everywhere equidistant from its center point," from Old French cercle "circle, ring (for the finger); hoop of a helmet or barrel" (12c.), from Latin circulus "circular figure; small ring, hoop; circular orbit" (also source of Italian cerchio), diminutive of circus "ring" (see circus).

Replaced Old English trendel and hring. Late Old English used circul, from Latin, but only in an astronomical sense. Also used of things felt to be analogous to a circle: The meaning "group of persons surrounding a center of interest" is from 1714 (it also was a secondary sense of Latin circulus); that of "coterie" is from 1640s (a sense also found in Latin circulus).

To come full circle is in Shakespeare. Sense in logic, "inconclusive argument in which unproved statements are used to prove each other" is from 1640s. Meaning "dark mark around or beneath the eyes" is from 1848.

circuit (n.)

late 14c., "a circumference; a periphery, a line going around (an area), whether circular or not; a circular or circuitous course," from Old French circuit (14c.) "a circuit; a journey (around something)," from Latin circuitus "a going around," from stem of circuire, circumire "go around," from circum "round" (see circum-) + ire "to go" (from PIE root *ei- "to go").

From c. 1400 as "space enclosed within certain limits." Hence, "district in which any business involving periodic journeys is done (1570s), especially of judicial assignments involving the journey of a judge from one place to another; in reference to routes followed by itinerant entertainers from 1834. Hence also circuit-rider "Methodist minister who rides a circuit, preaching successively in different stations" (by 1834); to ride circuit "take a roundabout course" is from 1650s.

Electrical sense "arrangement by which a current is kept up between two poles" is from 1746. Circuit-breaker "device for automatically opening an electrical circuit" is recorded from 1874. Related: Circuital.


word-forming element meaning "around, round about, all around, on all sides," from Latin adverb and preposition circum "around, round about," literally "in a circle," probably accusative form of circus "ring" (see circus). The Latin word was commonly used in word-formation. In French, the element became circon-; Kitchin points out that con for cum is common even in classical Latin. For sense development, compare German rings "around."

circumcision (n.)

"the act of cutting off the foreskin," late 12c., from Latin circumcisionem (nominative circumcisio), noun of action from past participle stem of circumcidere "to cut around; cut, clip, trim, prune off," from circum "around" (see circum-) + caedere "to cut" (from PIE root *kae-id- "to strike.").

circumflex (n.)

"sign or mark placed over certain vowels to indicate accent or tone," 1570s, from Latin (accentus) circumflexus, "bent around," past participle of circumflectere "to bend around," of a charioteer, "turn around," from circum "around" (see circum-), + flectere "to bend" (see flexible).

Used as a loan-translation of Greek (prosodia) perispomenos (Dionysius of Halicarnassus), literally "drawn-around," with reference to the shape. The tone is recognized in Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit; in the first two it is limited to "long" vowels. "In modern English use the mark has no definite value, but is variously used by orthoepists or phonetists to mark long quantity, 'broad' quality, or the like" [OED].

circumnavigate (v.)

"to sail round, pass round by water," 1630s, from Latin circumnavigatus, past participle of circumnavigare "to sail round," from circum "around" (see circum-) + navigare (see navigation). Related: Circumnavigated; circumnavigating; circumnavigable.

circumscribe (v.)

late 14c., "to encompass; confine, restrain, mark out bounds or limits for," from Latin circumscribere "to make a circle around, encircle, draw a line around; limit, restrain, confine, set the boundaries of," from circum "around, round about" (see circum-) + scribere "to write" (from PIE root *skribh- "to cut"). Related: Circumscribed; circumscribing.