Etymology
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Words related to *segh-

scheme (n.)

1550s, "figure of speech" (a sense now obsolete), from Medieval Latin schema "a shape, a figure, a form, appearance; figure of speech; posture in dancing," from Greek skhēma (genitive skhematos) "figure, appearance, the nature of a thing," which is related to skhein "to get," and ekhein "to have, hold; be in a given state or condition" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold").

By 1610s as "linear representation showing relative positions pf the parts or elements of a system" (especially in astrology). The sense "program of action" is by 1640s, also "outline, draft of a book, etc."

The meaning "plan of action devised to attain some end" is by 1718, and unfavorable overtones (selfishness, deviousness) began to creep in to the word after that time. Meaning "complex unity of coordinated component elements, a connected and orderly arrangement" is from 1736. In prosody by 1838. Color scheme is by 1890 (in Milton Bradley Co.'s "Color in the School-Room"); earlier scheme of colour (by 1877).

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scholar (n.)

Middle English scolere, from Old English scolere "student, one who receives instruction in a school, one who learns from a teacher," from Medieval Latin scholaris, "a pupil, scholar," noun use of Late Latin scholaris "of a school," from Latin schola (see school (n.1), and compare scholastic).

The Medieval Latin word was widely borrowed (Old French escoler, French écolier, Old High German scuolari, German Schüler). Not common in English before 14c. and the modern use might be a reborrowing. In British English it typically has been restricted to those who attend a school on a scholarship (1510s).

The spelling in sch- begins to appear late 14c. The broader meaning "learned person," especially one having great knowledge of philosophy and classical literature, is from late 13c.

scholastic (adj.)

1590s, "of or pertaining to Scholastic theologians" (Churchmen in the Middle Ages whose theology and philosophy was based on Church Fathers and Aristotle), from French scholastique (14c.), from Latin scholasticus "of a school," from Greek skholastikos "enjoying leisure; devoting one's leisure to learning," hence, as a noun, "a scholar," also in a bad sense, "a pedant; a simpleton," from skholē "leisure" (see school (n.1)). Greek scholastēs meant "one who lives at ease."

In English, the meaning "pertaining to or suited to schools or to school education" is from 1640s. As a noun in English from 1640s, "a Schoolman, an adherent of scholasticism, a Christian Aristotelian." Related: Scholastical (early 15c., scolasticalle, "relating to scholasticism;" 1530s in the "relating to a school" sense); scholastically.

It is remarkable that Aristotle, whom the schoolmen placed almost on a level with the Fathers, owes his position entirely to the early heretics ; that the introduction of his philosophy was at first invariably accompanied by an increase of heresy ; and that the Fathers, with scarcely an exception, unequivocally denounced it. [W.E.H. Lecky, "History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe," 1866]
school (n.1)
Origin and meaning of school

[place of instruction] Middle English scole, from Old English scol, "institution for instruction," from Latin schola "meeting place for teachers and students, place of instruction;" also "learned conversation, debate; lecture; disciples of a teacher, body of followers, sect," also in the older Greek sense of "intermission of work, leisure for learning."

This is from Greek skholē "spare time, leisure, rest, ease; idleness; that in which leisure is employed; learned discussion;" also "a place for lectures, school;" originally "a holding back, a keeping clear," from skhein "to get" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold") + -olē by analogy with bolē "a throw," stolē "outfit," etc.

The basic sense of the Greek word is "leisure," which passed to "otiose discussion" (in Athens or Rome, the favorite or proper use of free time), then it came to be used for the place for such discussion.

The Latin word was widely borrowed (in addition to Old French escole, French école, Spanish escuela, Italian scuola; Old High German scuola, German Schule, Swedish skola, Gaelic sgiol, Welsh ysgol, Russian shkola).

The meaning "students attending a school" in English is attested from c. 1300; the sense of "school building" is by 1590s. Sense of "people united by a general similarity of principles and methods" is from 1610s; hence school of thought (by 1848). As an adjective by mid-18c., "pertaining to or relating to a school or to education."

School of hard knocks "rough experience in life" is by 1870; to tell tales out of school "betray damaging secrets" is from 1540s. School-bus is from 1908. School days is from 1590s. School board "local committee of education" is by 1836; school district "division of a town or city for the management of schools" is by 1809.

severe (adj.)

1540s, from French severe (12c., Modern French sévère) or directly from Latin severus "serious, grave, strict, austere," which is probably from PIE root *segh- "to have, hold," on the notion of "steadfastness, toughness." From 1660s with reference to styles or tastes; from 1725 of diseases.

severity (n.)

late 15c., "austerity or strictness of life," from French severite, from Latin severitas "seriousness, strictness, sternness," from severus "stern, strict, serious," of uncertain origin, probably from PIE root *segh- "to have, hold," on the notion of "steadfastness, toughness." Meaning "strictness in dealing with others" is recorded from 1520s.

Siegfried 

masc. proper name, German Siegfried, first element from Old High German sigu "victory," from Proto-Germanic *seges- "victory" (source also of Old Frisian si, Old Saxon sigi, Middle Dutch seghe, Dutch zege, German Sieg, Old Norse sigr, Danish seier, Gothic sigis, Old English sige "victory, success, triumph"), from PIE root *segh- "to hold" (source also of Sanskrit saha- "victory," sahate "overcomes, masters").

Second element from Old High German frithu "peace" (from suffixed form of PIE root *pri- "to love"). Siegfried Line, World War I German fortifications in France, is from German Siegfriedlinie, named for the hero in Wagner's "Ring" cycle.

asseveration (n.)

"an emphatic assertion," 1550s, from Latin asseverationem (nominative asseveratio) "vehement assertion, protestation," noun of action from past-participle stem of asseverare/adseverare "affirm, insist on," from ad "to" (see ad-) + severus "serious, grave, strict, austere," which is probably from PIE root *segh- "to have, hold," on the notion of "steadfastness, toughness."

Hector 
masc. personal name, from Latinized form of Hektor, name of the Trojan hero, oldest son of Priam and Hecuba, in the "Iliad," from Greek hektor, literally "holder, stayer;" an agent noun from ekhein "to have, hold, possess" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold"). As a proper name it is rare in England but used in Scotland to render Gaelic Eachdonn. Heck for short.
hexiology (n.)

"history of the development and behavior of living beings as affected by their environment," 1882, coined by English biologist St. George Jackson Mivart (1827-1900) from Greek hexis "a state or habit," from ekhein "to have, hold;" in intransitive use, "be in a given state or condition" (from PIE root *segh- "to hold").

Every living creature has also relations with other living creatures, which may tend to destroy it, or indirectly to aid it, and the various physical forces and conditions exercise their several influences upon it. The study of all these complex relations to time, space, physical forces, other organisms, and to surrounding conditions generally, constitutes the science of hexicology (hexiology?). [Mivart]

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