Etymology
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Words related to *sed-

siege (n.)

early 13c., segge, "a seat, chair, stool; ceremonial seat of a king," senses now obsolete, from Old French siege, sege "seat, throne," from Vulgar Latin *sedicum "seat," from Latin sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").

The military sense, "the stationing of an attacking force before or around a fortified place; the act or process of besieging a city, castle, etc." is attested from c. 1300; the notion is of an army "sitting down" before a place.

The oldest sense preserved in archaic Siege Perilous (early 13c.), the vacant seat at Arthur's Round Table, according to prophecy to be occupied safely only by the knight destined to find the Grail. Also in Middle English "a privy, a latrine, chamber pot" (c. 1400), hence in 16c. "excrement, fecal matter; the anus."

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sit (v.)

"To be or remain in that posture in which the weight of the body rests upon the posteriors" [OED], Middle English sitten, from Old English sittan "occupy a seat, be seated, sit down, seat oneself; remain, continue; settle, encamp; lie in wait; besiege" (class V strong verb; past tense sæt, past participle seten), from Proto-Germanic *setjan (source also of Old Saxon sittian, Old Norse sitja, Danish sidde, Old Frisian sitta, Middle Dutch sitten, Dutch zitten, Old High German sizzan, German sitzen, Gothic sitan), from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."

With past tense sat (formerly also set, which is now restricted to dialect, and sate, now archaic); and past participle sat, formerly sitten. The meaning "to have a seat in a legislative assembly" is from late 14c.; in reference to the assembly, "to hold a session," from 1510s. The sense of "pose" for a portrait, etc., is by 1530s.

As short for babysit (v.) by 1966. The specific sense of "occupy a judicial seat" (Old English) is the notion in sit in judgement. The meaning "have a certain position or direction" is from c. 1200; of winds, "to blow from" (a certain quarter), 1590s, from the notion of "to be in."

To sit back "be inactive" is from 1943. To sit on one's hands originally was "withhold applause" (1926), later generalized to "do nothing" (by 1959). To sit around "be idle, do nothing" is by 1915, American English. To sit out "not take part, make oneself an exception" is from 1650s.

sitz-bath (n.)

"hip-bath," also a tub adapted for such a bath, 1849, a hybrid from German Sitzbad, literally "bath in a sitting position," from German sitzen (see sit (v.)) with English bath for cognate German Bad.

sitzkrieg (n.)

1940, "static warfare" (such as prevailed in Europe in the winter of 1939-40), R.A.F. coinage on analogy of blitzkrieg (q.v.), from German sitz "a sitting," from sitzen "to sit" (see sit (v.)).

size (n.)

c. 1300, "an ordinance to fix the amount of a payment or tax," from Old French sise, shortened form of assise "session, assessment, regulation, manner," noun use of fem. past participle of asseoir "to cause to sit," from Latin assidere/adsidere "to sit beside" (and thus to assist in the office of a judge), "sit with in counsel or office," from ad "to" (see ad-) + sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."

Probably a misdivision of l'assise as la sise. The sense of "extent, amount, volume, magnitude" (c. 1300) is from the notion of regulating something by fixing the amount of it (weights, food portions, etc.). Specific sense of "set of dimensions of a manufactured article for sale" is attested from 1590s.

soil (n.1)

c. 1300, originally "land, area, place," from Anglo-French soil "piece of ground, place" (13c.), from a merger or confusion of Old French sol "bottom, ground, soil" (12c., from Latin solum "soil, ground;" see sole (n.1)), Old French soeul, sueil "threshold, area, place" (from Latin solium "seat," from PIE *sodio- "seat," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"), and Old French soil, soille "a miry place," from soillier (see soil (v.)).

Meaning "place of one's nativity" is from c. 1400. Meaning "mould, earth, dirt" (especially that which plants grow in) is attested from mid-15c.

Somerset 

9c., Sumor sæton, from Old English sumorsæta, short for *sumorton sæte "the people who live at (or depend upon) Somerton," a settlement attested from 8c. (Sumertone), literally "summer settlement." In 12c. it begins to be clearly meant as a place-name (Sumersetescir) not a collective name for a set of people.

soot (n.)

Old English sot "soot," from Proto-Germanic *sotam "soot" (source also of Old Norse sot, Old Dutch soet, North Frisian sutt), literally "what settles," from PIE *sodo- (source also of Old Church Slavonic sažda, Lithuanian suodžiai, Old Irish suide, Breton huzel "soot"), suffixed form of root *sed- (1) "to sit."

subside (v.)

1680s, of objects, "to sink to the bottom," from Latin subsidere "sit down, settle, sink, fall; remain; crouch down, squat," from sub "under, beneath" (see sub-) + sidere "to settle," related to sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Of liquid surfaces, "to sink to a lower level, be reduced" from 1706. Related: Subsided; subsiding.

subsidy (n.)

late 14c., from Anglo-French subsidie, Old French subside "help, aid, assistance, contribution," from Latin subsidium "a help, aid, assistance, (military) reinforcements, troops in reserve," from subsidere "to settle down, stay, remain" (see subside).

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