Words related to *sed-
1590s, of assemblies, parliaments, etc., "remaining in one place" (contrasted to ambulatory), from French sédentaire (16c.) and directly from Latin sedentarius "sitting, remaining in one place," from sedentem (nominative sedens), present participle of sedere "to sit; occupy an official seat, preside; sit still, remain; be fixed or settled" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").
Of occupations, etc., "requiring much sitting," by c. 1600. In reference to persons, "accustomed to long sitting," 1660s, hence "inactive, not in the habit of exercise." Related: Sedentariness.
1540s, "matter which settles by gravity to the bottom of water or other liquid," from French sédiment (16c.) and directly from Latin sedimentum "a settling, sinking down, subsidence," from stem of sedere "to settle, sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). Especially in geology after 1680s.
c. 1300, "throne of a bishop, archbishop, or pope," also "throne of a monarch, a goddess, the Antichrist, etc.," from Old French sie "seat, throne; town, capital; episcopal see," from Latin sedem (nominative sedes) "seat, throne, abode, temple," related to sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").
Attested by early 14c. as "administrative center of a bishopric;" c. 1400 as "province under the jurisdiction of a bishop." In Middle English also sometimes simply "place to sit, a chair" (late 14c.).
It differs from diocese, however, in that diocese represents the territorial province for the care of which the bishop is responsible (that is, where his duties lie), whereas see is the local seat of his authority, dignity, and episcopal privileges. [Century Dictionary]
1725, "adhering close to the surface," from Latin sessilis "pertaining to sitting, for sitting on," from sessus, past participle of sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). In botany, of leaves, etc., "attached without any apparent projecting support," from 1753. Meaning "sedentary," of certain animals fixed to one spot, is recorded by 1860.
late 14c., sessioun, "periodical sitting of a court," from Old French session "act or state of sitting; assembly," from Latin sessionem (nominative sessio) "act of sitting; a seat; loitering; a session," noun of action from past-participle stem of sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").
By 1550s in the general sense of "the time or term during which a legislature, etc. meets daily for business." The still more general sense of "period set aside for some activity" is recorded by 1920, in bull session, which probably is extended from quarter sessions courts (see quarter (n.1)).
The musical sense of "recording occasion in a studio" is from 1927. The literal classical sense has been rare in English except in theology, of Christ's enthronement at the right hand of the Father (early 15c.). Related: Sessional.
Middle English setten, from Old English settan (transitive) "cause to sit; make or cause to rest as on a seat; cause to be put, placed, or seated;" also "put in a definite place," also "arrange, fix adjust; fix or appoint (a time) for some affair or transaction," and "cause (thoughts, affections) to dwell on."
This is from Proto-Germanic *(bi)satejanan "to cause to sit, set" (source also of Old Norse setja, Swedish sätta, Old Saxon settian, Old Frisian setta, Dutch zetten, German setzen, Gothic satjan), causative form of PIE *sod-, a variant of the root *sed- (1) "to sit." Also see set (n.2). It has been confused with sit (v.) at least since early 14c.
The intransitive sense of "be seated" is from c. 1200; that of "sink down, descend, decline toward and pass below the horizon" (of the sun, moon, or stars) is by mid-13c., perhaps from similar use of the cognates in Scandinavian languages; figurative use of this is from c. 1600.
Many uses are highly idiomatic, the verb, like put, its nearest equivalent, and do, make, get, etc., having become of almost universal application, and taking its distinctive color from the context. [Century Dictionary]
The sense of "make or cause to do, act, or be; start, bring (something) to a certain state" (on fire, in order, etc.) and that of "mount a gemstone" are attested by mid-13c. That of "determine upon, resolve" is from c. 1300; hence be set against "resisting" (mid-14c.).
The sense of "make a table ready for a meal" is from late 14c.; that of "regulate or adjust by a standard" (of a clock, etc.) is from late 14c. In printing, "to place (types) in the proper order for reading; put into type," 1520s. From c. 1500 as "put words to music." From 1570s as "put (a broken or dislocated bone) in position." In cookery, plastering, etc., "become firm or solid in consistency" by 1736.
To set (one's) heart on (something) is from c. 1300 as "love, be devoted to;" c. 1400 as "have a desire for." To set (one's) mind is from mid-15c.; transitive set (one's mind) to "determine to accomplish" is from late 15c. To set (something) on "incite to attack" (c. 1300) originally was in reference to hounds and game. To set an example is mid-14c. (set (v.) in the sense of "present" is from late Old English). The notion of "fix the value of" is behind old phrases such as set at naught "regard as nothing."
To set out is from c. 1300 as "display (for sale);" to set up shop "commence doing business" is from c. 1400.
see set (n.1).
The extra t is an arbitrary addition in various technical senses, from a lawn-tennis to a granite set. Each class of persons has doubtless added it to distinguish the special sense that means most to it from all others ; but so many are the special senses that the distinction is now no more distinctive than an Esq. after a man's name, & all would do well to discard it. [Fowler]
"long seat or bench with a high back and arms," 1550s, now archaic or obsolete (but compare settee), from Middle English setle "a seat," from Old English setl "a seat, stall; position, abode; setting of a heavenly body," related to sittan "to sit," from Proto-Germanic *setla- (source also of Middle Low German, Middle Dutch setel, Dutch zetel, German Sessel, Gothic sitls), from PIE *sedla- (source also of Latin sella "seat, chair," Old Church Slavonic sedlo "saddle," Old English sadol "saddle"), from root *sed- (1) "to sit."
Middle English setlen, "become set or fixed, stable or permanent; seat, place in a seat; sink down, come down," from Old English setlan "place in a fixed or permanent position; cause to sit, place in a seat," from setl "a seat" (see settle (n.)). Compare German siedeln "to settle; to colonize."
From c. 1300 in reference to birds, etc., "to alight." From early 14c. of ground, etc., "to sink down, descend; cave in." By early 15c. (Chauliac) in reference to a liquid, "change from a disturbed or muddy condition to one of cleanness." By 1570s, of persons, "change from a disturbed or troubled state to one of security."
It is attested by 1520s as "become calm" (but c. 1600 it also could mean, colloquially, "knock down dead or stunned"). The meaning "decide, set or fix as by purpose or intention" is by 1620s. The meaning "secure title to (property, etc.) by means of a deed, etc." is from 1660s. It is attested by 1733 as "put beyond dispute or establish by authority or argument;" hence "resolve, determine, come to a decision (1782).
The sense of "establish a permanent residence" is recorded by 1620s; that of "plant with inhabitants, colonize" is by 1702.
The old meaning "reconcile" (a quarrel, differences, etc.) perhaps is influenced by or merged with Middle English sahtlen "to reconcile," which is from Old English saht "reconciliation," from Old Norse satt "reconciliation."
To settle down (intrans.) as what married couples do in establishing a domestic state is by 1835 (settle alone in this sense is by 1718). The transitive sense is by 1520s. To settle for "content oneself with" is from 1943; Middle English also used settle (v.) in an intransitive sense of "come down in the world, become lower in estate" (mid-14c.).