Words related to *sed-
late 14c., possessen, "to hold, occupy, inhabit" (without regard to ownership), a back formation from possession and in part from Old French possesser "to have and hold, take, be in possession of" (mid-13c.), from Latin possessus, past participle of possidere "to have and hold, hold in one's control, be master of, own," probably a compound of potis "having power, powerful, able" (from PIE root *poti- "powerful; lord") + sedere, from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit."
According to Buck, Latin possidere was a legal term first used in connection with real estate. The meaning "to hold as property" in English is recorded from c. 1500. That of "to seize, take possession of" is from 1520s; the demonic sense of "have complete power or mastery over, control" is recorded from 1530s (implied in possessed); the weakened sense of "fascinate, enthrall, affect or influence intensely" is by 1590s. Related: Possessed; possessing. The other usual Latin verb for "to possess," tenere, originally was "to hold," then "occupy, possess" (see tenet).
"be set over others, have place of authority, direct and control," 1610s, from French présider "preside over, govern" (15c.), from Latin praesidere "stand guard; superintend," literally "sit in front of," from prae "before" (see pre-) + sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Usually denoting temporary superintendence or direction.
late 15c., residen, "to remain at a place," from Old French resider (15c.) and directly from Latin residere "sit down, settle; remain behind, rest, linger; be left," from re- "back, again" (see re-) + sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). The meaning "to dwell permanently or for a considerable time" is attested by 1570s. Related: Resided; residing. Also from the French word are Dutch resideren, German residiren.
Middle English sadel, from Old English sadol "contrivance secured to the back of a horse, etc., as a seat for a rider," from Proto-Germanic *sathulaz (source also of Old Norse söðull, Old Frisian sadel, Dutch zadel, zaal, German Sattel "saddle"), from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit" + Germanic suffix *-þra, used to form neutral names of tools.
Extended to various things resembling or functioning as a saddle. Figurative phrase in the saddle "in an active position of management" is attested from 1650s. Saddle-horse "horse for riding" is from 1660s. Saddle-stitch (n.) is from bookbinding (1887).
supreme council and highest ecclesiastical and judicial tribunal of the ancient Jews, 1580s, from Late Hebrew sanhedrin (gedola) "(great) council," from Greek synedrion "assembly, council," literally "sitting together," from syn- "together" (see syn-) + hedra "seat" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). Compare cathedral.
Abolished at the destruction of Jerusalem, C.E. 70. The proper form is sanhedrin; the error began as a false correction when the Greek word was taken into Mishanic Hebrew, where -in is a form of the plural suffix of which -im is the more exact form.
1789, "a sitting, a session," as of a learned society, originally in French contexts, from French séance "a sitting," from seoir "to sit," from Latin sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit"). Meaning "spiritualistic session in which intercourse is alleged to be held with ghosts of the dead" is recorded by 1845.
c. 1200, sete, "thing to sit on; place one sits," from Old Norse sæti "seat, position," both from Proto-Germanic *sæt- (source also of Old High German saze, Middle Dutch gesaete "seat," Old High German gisazi, German Gesäß "buttocks"), from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." Old English had sæt "place where one sits in ambush," which also meant "residents, inhabitants," and is the source of the -set in Dorset and Somerset.
The sense of "part of a thing (a saddle, etc.) on which one sits" is from c. 1400. The meaning "posterior of the body" (the sitting part) is from c. 1600; the sense of "part of a garment which covers the buttocks" is from 1835. Seat belt "safety restraint when sitting" is from 1915, originally in airplanes.
By late 14c. as "part of the body in which a humor arises;" from 1550s as "site, situation, location" generally.
The word in the sense of "residence, abode, established place" (late 13c.) is an extended use of this, influenced by Old French siege "seat, established place," and Latin sedes "seat." It is perhaps from the notion of a chair set apart for the holder of some position of dignity or authority (a sense attested in English seat from c. 1200). The meaning "city in which a government sits" is attested from c. 1400. The sense of "right of taking a place in a parliament or other legislative body" is attested from 1774.
1630s, "a covered chair on poles, serving as a vehicle for one person," a word of uncertain origin, possibly from a southern Italian dialect derivative of Italian sede "chair" (compare Italian seggietta, 1590s; the thing itself was said to have originated in Naples), which is from Latin sedes, a noun related to sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").
Since the date of Johnson's conjecture, however, the word has been often derived from the name of the town of Sedan in France, where it was said to have been made or first used, but historical evidence for this connection is lacking and OED frowns on it.
The thing was introduced in England by Sir Sanders Duncombe in 1634 and first called a covered chair. "In Paris the sedan-chair man was usually an Auvergnat, in London an Irishman" ["Encyclopaedia Britannica," 1929].
Brit. 'Sfoot where's my wife then?
Sam. If your wife be the gentlewoman o' the house sir, shee's now gone forth in one o' the new Hand-litters : what call yee it, a Sedan.
[Richard Brome, "The Sparagus Garden: A Comedie," 1635]
[T]heir use was greatly extended in the eighteenth century, when they were the common means of transportation for ladies and gentlemen in the cities of England and France. They were often elaborately decorated, with paintings by artists of note, panels of vernis Martin, and the like, and lined with elegant silks. Similar chairs, carried on the shoulders of two or more bearers, have long been in use in China. [Century Dictionary]
Meaning "closed automobile seating four or more" is recorded by 1911, American English, in automotive journals. Middle English had sede (n.) "a chair, seat" (early 14c.), from Latin sedes.
in medicine, "tending to calm or soothe," early 15c. (Chauliac), sedatif, from Old French sedatif and directly from Medieval Latin sedativus "calming, allaying," from sedat-, past participle stem of Latin sedare, causative of sedere "to sit" (from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit").
The noun derivative meaning "a sedative drug" is attested by 1797, short for sedative salt, etc.; earlier it was used in a figurative or non-medical sense (1785), "whatever soothes or allays."