Words related to *reudh-
1540s, of persons, "having or indicating great strength, muscular, vigorous," from French robuste (14c.) and directly from Latin robustus "strong and hardy," literally "as strong as oak," originally "oaken," from robur, robus "hard timber, strength," also "a special kind of oak," named for its reddish heartwood, from Latin ruber "red" (related to robigo "rust"), from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy." Related: Robustly; robustness; robusticity.
Robustious (1540s) was an elaborated form common in 17c. (see "Hamlet" iii.2), with more of a sense of "rough, violent, rude;" according to OED it fell from use by mid-18c., but was somewhat revived by mid-19c. antiquarian writers. Related: Robustiously; robustiousness.
1753, "red cosmetic coloring for the skin, fine red powder used to give artificial color to the face," from French rouge "red coloring matter," noun use of adjective meaning "red" (12c.), from Latin rubeus, related to ruber "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").
It replaced native paint in this sense. The verb, "to color (the skin, especially the cheeks) with rouge" is attested by 1777. Related: Rouged; rouging. The same French word had been borrowed in Middle English with the sense of "red color" (early 15c.), also "red" (adj.).
"mountain ash," 1804, from rowan-tree, rountree (1540s), rawntre (late 15c.), northern English and Scottish, from a Scandinavian source (compare Old Norse reynir, Swedish Ronn "the rowan"), said in Watkins to be ultimately from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy," in reference to the berries.
There were those in this neighbourhood, long after the beginning of the present century, who believed that a slip of rowan tree carried on their person dispelled glamour, and rendered nugatory all the powers of sorcery and witchcraft. [Alexander Laing, "Lindores Abbey and the Burgh of Newburgh," Edinburgh, 1876]
early 15c. (Chauliac), "reddish, flushed," especially of the face, especially as a result of indulgence in appetites, from Old French rubicond (14c.) and directly from Latin rubicundus, from rubere "to be red," from ruber "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy"). Related: Rubicundity.
c. 1300, robryk, ribrusch, rubryke, "directions in a liturgical book for participation in religious services" (which often were written in red ink), from Old French rubrique, rubriche "rubric, title" (13c.) and directly from Latin rubrica "red ochre, red coloring matter," from ruber (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").
The meaning "title or heading of a book" (also originally often printed in red) is from early 15c. The transferred sense of "general rule; descriptive title" is by 1831.Related: Rubrical.
valuable precious gem, in modern understanding a clear, rich-red variety of corundum, c. 1300, rubi, rubie (late 12c. as a surname), from Old French rubi (12c.), from Medieval Latin rubinus lapis "red stone" (source also of Italian rubino), from Latin rubeus "red," which is related to ruber (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").
As a name for a pure or somewhat crimson-red color, from 1570s. As an adjective from late 15c., "made from or with rubies;" c. 1500 as "of a ruby color." Modern French rubis is not explained; Klein suggests a plural mistaken for singular.