Words related to *reudh-

bilirubin (n.)

"reddish pigment found in bile," 1868, from German bilirubin (1864), from bili- "bile" (see bile) + Latin ruber "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy") + -ine (2).

corroborate (v.)

1520s, "to give (legal) confirmation to," from Latin corroboratus, past participle of corroborare "to strengthen, invigorate," from assimilated form of com "with, together," here perhaps "thoroughly" (see com-) + roborare "to make strong," from robur, robus "strength," (see robust).

Meaning "to strengthen by evidence, to confirm" is from 1706. Sometimes 16c.-18c. in its literal Latin sense "make strong or add strength to," especially of medicines. Related: Corroborated; corroborating; corroborative.


named 1890 when it was an Italian colony, ultimately from Mare Erythreum, Roman name of the Red Sea, from Greek Erythre Thalassa, literally "Red Sea" (which to the Greeks also included the Gulf of Arabia and the Indian Ocean), from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy").

erysipelas (n.)

late 14c., skin disease also known as St. Anthony's Fire or ignis sacer, from Greek erysipelas, perhaps from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy") + pella "skin" (from PIE root *pel- (3) "skin, hide"). Related: Erysipelatous.

erythema (n.)

medical Latin, from Greek erythema "a redness on the skin; a blush; redness," from erythainein "to become red," from erythros "red" (from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy"). Related: Erythematous.


before vowels, erythr-, word-forming element meaning "red," from Greek erythros "red" (in Homer, also the color of copper and gold); from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy."


place in eastern Wales, the name is Old English, literally "at the red bank," from Old English read (dative singular readan; from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy") + ofer "bank, slope."

red (adj.1)

"of a bright, warm color resembling that of blood or of the highest part of the primery rainbow" [Century Dictionary], Middle English rēd, redde, read, reid, from Old English rēad, used of various shades of purple, crimson, scarlet, pink, etc.; also red clothes, dye, ink, wine, or paint, also "having a ruddy or reddish complexion; red-haired, red-bearded;" from Proto-Germanic *rauthan (source also of Old Norse rauðr, Danish rød, Old Saxon rod, Old Frisian rad, Middle Dutch root, Dutch rood, German rot, Gothic rauþs).

This is reconstructed to be from a PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy," the only color for which a definite common PIE root word has been found. It also is the root of native ruddy, rust, and, via Latin, ruby, rubric, russet, etc.

Along with dead, bread (n.), lead (n.1), its long vowel shortened in or after Middle English. The surname Read, Reid, Reade, etc. represents the old form of the adjective and retains the original Old English long vowel pronunciation. It corresponds to Brown, Black, White; Red itself being rare as a surname. As the color designation of Native Americans in English from 1580s.

In fixed comparisons, red as blood (Old English), roses (mid-13c.), cherry (c. 1400). From Old English as the color characteristic of inflammation, blistering, etc. Of the complexion, lips, etc., "ruddy, rosy, red" (c. 1200); also of person with a healthy complexion or skin color; to be red in the face as a result of powerful emotion or agitation is by c. 1200; to see red "get angry" is an American English expression attested by 1898.

Red as the characteristic color of "British possessions" on a map is attested from 1885. Red-white-and-blue in reference to American patriotism, from the colors of the flag, is from 1840; in a British context, in reference to the Union flag, 1852.

Red rover, the children's game, attested from 1891. Red ball signifying "express" in railroad jargon is by 1904, originally (1899) a system of moving and tracking freight cars. Red dog, type of U.S. football pass rush, is recorded from 1959 (earlier "lowest grade of flour produced in a mill," by 1889). Red meat, that which is ordinarily served or preferred undercooked, is from 1808; the food of wild beasts, hence its figurative use for something that satisfies a basic appetite (by 1792; popular from late 20c.).

Red shift in spectography is first recorded 1923. Red carpet "sumptuous welcome" is from 1934, but the custom for dignitaries is described as far back as Aeschylus ("Agamemnon"); it also was the name of a type of English moth. Red ant is from 1660s.

redskin (n.)

"North American Indian," 1690s, from red (adj.1) + skin (n.). "(Not the preferred term.)" [OED]. Red as the skin color of Native Americans is from 1580s; red man "North American Indian" is from 1580s.

roan (adj.)

1520s, of horses, "of a bay, sorrel, or chestnut color, thickly interspersed with gray or white, from French roan "reddish brown," perhaps from Spanish roano, from Old Spanish raudano, probably from a Germanic source (compare Gothic raudan, accusative of rauðs "red"), from PIE root *reudh- "red, ruddy." As a noun, "a roan horse," 1570s.