Words related to *pet-
order of insects with four scaly wings, 1773, the biological classification that includes butterflies and moths, coined 1735 in Modern Latin by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linné, 1707-1778) from lepido- "scale" + pteron "wing, feather" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"). Related: Lepidopteral; lepidopteran; lepidopterous.
1550s, "a tuft or plume of feathers," especially as worn in a hat or helmet, from French pennache "tuft of feathers," from Italian pennaccio, from Late Latin pinnaculum "small wing, gable, peak" (see pinnacle). Figurative sense of "display, swagger" is recorded from 1898 (in translation of "Cyrano de Bergerac"), from French.
late 13c., penne, "writing implement made from the hard, hollow stem at the base of a feather," from Old French pene "quill pen; feather" (12c.) and directly from Latin penna "a feather, plume," in plural "a wing," in Late Latin, "a pen for writing," from Old Latin petna, pesna, from PIE *pet-na-, suffixed form of root *pet- "to rush; to fly."
In later French, this word means only "long feather of a bird," while the equivalent of English plume is used for "writing implement;" the senses of the two words in French thus are reversed from the situation in English.
In Middle English also "a feather," especially a large one from the wing or tail. The sense was extended to any instrument of similar form used for writing by means of fluid ink. Pen-and-ink (adj.) "made or done with a pen and ink" is attested from 1670s. Pen name "fictitious name assumed by an author" is by 1857 (French nom de plume was used in English from 1823). Southey uses pen-gossip (v.) "to gossip by correspondence" (1818).
"long, narrow flag" (often triangular or swallow-tailed, attached to a lance and having distinguishing markings), late 14c., penoun, from Old French penon "feathers of an arrow; streamer, flag, banner," from penne "feather," from Latin penna "feather" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly"). In medieval Europe, the flag of a knight-bachelor or one who has not reached the dignity of a banneret.
also peripetia, "that part of a drama in which the plot is tied together and the whole concludes, the denouement," 1590s, from Greek peripeteia "a turn right about; a sudden change" (of fortune, in a tragedy), from peri "around" (see peri-) + stem of piptein "to fall," from PIE *pi-pt-, reduplicated form of root *pet- "to rush; to fly."
mid-14c., perpetuel, "everlasting, unceasing, existing indefinitely, continuing forever in future time;" late 14c., "uninterrupted, continuous," from Old French perpetuel "without end" (12c.) and directly from Latin perpetualis "universal," in Medieval Latin "permanent," from perpetuus "continuous, universal," from perpetis, genitive of Old Latin perpes "lasting," probably from per "through" (from PIE root *per- (1) "forward," hence "through") + root of petere "to seek, go to, aim at" (from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly").
Related: Perpetually. Perpetual motion in reference to a hypothetical machine which, being set once in motion, will continue forever unless stopped by some external force" is attested from 1590s.
"quality or state of endless duration, continued uninterrupted existence for an indefinite period of time," late 14c., perpetuite, from Old French perpetuité "permanence, duration" (13c., Modern French perpétuité) and directly from Latin perpetuitatem (nominative perpetuitas) "uninterrupted duration, continuity, continuous succession," from perpetuus (see perpetual).
mid-14c., petiocioun, "a supplication or prayer," especially to a deity," from Anglo-French (early 14c.), from Old French peticion "request, petition" (12c., Modern French pétition) and directly from Latin petitionem (nominative petitio) "a blow, thrust, attack, aim; a seeking, searching," in law "a claim, suit," noun of action from past-participle stem of petere "to make for, go to; attack, assail; seek, strive after; ask for, beg, beseech, request; fetch; derive; demand, require," from PIE root *pet- "to rush; to fly."
Meaning "formal written request to a superior (earthly)" is attested from early 15c. In law, "a written application for an order of the court" (1737).