Etymology
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Words related to *pere-

department (n.)

c. 1500, "a ceasing, an ending; a going away, act of leaving" (obsolete in this sense), from Old French departement "division, sharing out; divorce, parting" (12c.), from Late Latin departire "to divide" (transitive), from de- "from" (see de-) + partire "to part, divide," from pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, a share, a division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

French department came also to mean "group of people" (as well as "departure"), and from this by 1735 English had borrowed the sense of "separate division of a complex whole, separate business assigned to someone in a larger organization, distinct branch or group of activities" (science, business, manufacture, the military). The specific meaning "separate division of a government" is from 1769. As an administrative district in France, from 1792.

Department store "store that sells a variety of items, organized by department" is from 1878.

The "Department Store" is the outgrowth of the cheap counter business originated by Butler Brothers in Boston about ten years ago. The little "Five Cent Counter" then became a cornerstone from which the largest of all the world's branches of merchandising was to be reared. It was the "Cheap Counter" which proved to the progressive merchant his ability to sell all lines of wares under one roof. It was the Five Cent Counter "epidemic" of '77 and '78 which rushed like a mighty whirlwind from the Atlantic to the Pacific and all along its path transformed old time one line storekeepers into the wide-awake merchant princes of the present day. It was this same epidemic which made possible the world famed Department Stores of Houghton, of Boston; Macy, of New York; Wanamaker, of Philadelphia; and Lehman, of Chicago. [American Storekeeper, 1885] 
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ex parte 

Latin legal term, "on the one side only," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + parte, ablative of pars "a part, piece, a division, a fraction, a side of the body" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

impart (v.)

early 15c., "to give a part of (one's possessions);" late 15c., "to share, take part in," from Old French empartir, impartir "assign, allot, allocate, share out" (14c.), from Late Latin impartire (also impertire) "to share in, divide with another; communicate," from assimilated form of in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + partire "to divide, part" (from pars "a part, piece, a share," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Meaning "communicate as knowledge or information" is from 1540s; the word was not originally restricted to immaterial things but now usually is only in reference to qualities. Related: Imparted; imparting; impartment.

jeopardy (n.)

late 14c., jupartie , ioparde, etc., "danger, risk;" earlier "a cunning plan, a stratagem" (c. 1300), from or based on Old French jeu parti "a lost game," more correctly "a divided game, game with even chances" (hence "uncertainty"). The sense perhaps developed in Anglo-French.

This is from jeu "a game" (from Latin iocus "jest;" see joke (n.)) + parti, past participle of partir "to divide, separate" (10c.), from Latin partire/partiri "to share, part, distribute, divide," from pars "a part, piece, a share" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). Jeopardous "in peril" (mid-15c.) is now obsolete.

multipartite (adj.)

also multi-partite, 1721, "divided into many parts," from Latin multipartitus "divided into many parts," from multi- "many" (see multi-) + partitus, past participle of partire "to divide" (from pars "a part, piece, a share," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

parcel (n.)

late 14c., "a portion or part of something" (a sense preserved in the verb and in the phrase parcel of land, which is from c. 1400), from Old French parcele "small piece, particle, parcel," and directly from Medieval Latin parcella, from Vulgar Latin *particella, extended form (via a diminutive suffix, but not necessarily implying smallness) of Latin particula "small part, little bit," itself a diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, fraction" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Meaning "a package" is recorded from 1640s from the earlier sense of "a quantity of goods in a package" (mid-15c.), which is from the late 14c. sense of "an amount or quantity of anything." The expression part and parcel (early 15c.) also preserves the older sense; both words mean the same, the multiplicity is for emphasis. In some old and technical senses, parcel is used as an adjective or adverb meaning "in part, partially, to some degree." Parcel post as a service to deliver packages (later a branch of the postal service) is by 1790.

parse (v.)

1550s, in grammar, "to state the part of speech of a word or the words in a sentence," a verbal use of Middle English pars (n.) "part of speech" (c. 1300), from Old French pars, plural of part "a part," from Latin pars "a part, piece" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot") in the school question, Quae pars orationis? "What part of speech?" Transferred (non-grammatical) use is by 1788. Pars also was a common plural of part (n.) in early Middle English. Related: Parsed; parsing.

part (n.)

mid-13c., "division, portion of a whole, element or constituent (of something)," from Old French part "share, portion; character; power, dominion; side, way, path," from Latin partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction; a part of the body; a fraction; a function, office," related to portio "share, portion," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot."

It has replaced native deal (n.) in most senses. Meaning "an allotted portion, a share" is from c. 1300; that of "a share of action or influence in activity or affairs, role, duty" is by late 14c. The theatrical sense (late 15c.) is from an actor's "share" in a performance (The Latin plural partis was used in the same sense). In music, "one of the voices or instruments in a concerted piece" (1520s). Sense of "separate piece of a machine" is by 1813.

Meaning "the division of the hair on the head when dressing it; the separation of the hair on the top of the head, from which it spread down on either side" is by 1890, American English; the earlier word for this was parting (1690s). The common Middle English word for it was shede, schede, from Old English scead, scad.

As an adjective from 1590s. Late Old English part "part of speech" did not survive and the modern word is considered a separate borrowing. Phrase for the most part "most, the greatest part" is from late 14c. To take part "participate" is from late 14c.

partial (adj.)

late 14c., "not whole or total, incomplete;" early 15c., "one-sided, biased, inclined to favor one party in a cause or one side of a question more than the other," also "pertaining to a selfish interest rather than to a common or larger good," from Old French parcial (14c., Modern French partial) and directly from Medieval Latin partialis "divisible, solitary, partial," from Latin pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, a share, a division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot").

Weakened sense of "favorably disposed" is from 1580s. Meaning "affecting a part only, not universal or general" is by 1640s.

participate (v.)

1530s, "to partake, to share or share in," a back-formation from participation, or else from Latin participatus, past participle of participare "to share, share in, participate in; to impart," from particeps "partaking, sharing," from parti, past participle of partir "to divide" (from Latin partire, from pars "a part, piece," from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot") + Latin -cip-, weak form of stem of capere "to take" (from PIE root *kap- "to grasp"). Meaning "have features or characteristics in common with another or others" is by 1570s. Related: Participated; participating.

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