Words related to *pere-

parapet (n.)

1580s, "wall or rampart rising breast-high," from French parapet "breastwork" (16c.), or directly from Italian parapetto, from para- "defense" (see para- (2)) + petto "breast," from Latin pectus (see pectoral (adj.)). Meaning "low wall at the edge of a structure to keep people from falling off" is from 1590s.

parasol (n.)

"light, portable screen or canopy carried to shield from the sun," 1610s, from French parasol (1570s), from Italian parasole, literally "protection from the sun," from para- "defense against" (see para- (2)) + sole "sun," from Latin solem (nominative sol; from PIE root *sawel- "the sun"). Originally used by persons of high rank in the East and by fashionable women in Europe.

pare (v.)

c. 1300, paren, "peel (fruit), cut off the crust (of bread)," from Old French parer "arrange, prepare; trim, adorn," and directly from Latin parare "make ready, prepare, furnish, provide, arrange, order; contrive, design, intend, resolve; procure, acquire, obtain, get; get with money, buy, purchase" (related to parire "produce, bring forth, give birth to"), from PIE *par-a-, suffixed form of root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure."

From late 14c. in the more general sense of "trim by cutting or scraping off an outer layer;" meaning "to reduce something little by little" is from 1520s. Pare down "reduce by cutting or striking off" is from late 15c. Related: Pared; paring.

parent (n.)

early 15c. (late 12c. as a surname), "a mother or father; a forebear, ancestor," from Old French parent "father, parent, relative, kin" (11c.) and directly from Latin parentem (nominative parens) "father or mother, ancestor," noun use of present participle of parire "bring forth, give birth to, produce," from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth." Began to replace native elder after c. 1500.


word-forming element meaning "bearing, producing," from Latin -parus (as in viviparus "bringing forth young alive"), from parire "to produce, bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").

parry (v.)

1630s, "to turn aside or ward off" the blow of a weapon (transitive), from French parez! (a word which would have been heard often in fencing lessons), imperative of parer "ward off," from Italian parare "to ward or defend (a blow)" (see para- (2)). Related: Parried; parrying. Non-fencing use is from 1718. The noun, "an act of warding off or turning aside," is by 1705, from the verb.

parturient (adj.)

"about to give birth," literally or figuratively, 1590s, from Latin parturientem (nominative parturiens), present participle of parturire "be in labor," literally "desire to bring forth," desiderative of parire "to bring forth, bear, produce, create; bring about, accomplish" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth"). Related: Parturiency.

poor (adj.)

c. 1200, "lacking money or resources, destitute of wealth; needy, indigent;" also "small, scanty," also voluntarily and deliberately, "devoid of possessions in conformity with Christian virtues," from Old French povre "poor, wretched, dispossessed; inadequate; weak, thin" (Modern French pauvre), from Latin pauper "poor, not wealthy," from pre-Latin *pau-paros "producing little; getting little," a compound from the roots of paucus "little" (from PIE root *pau- (1) "few, little") and parare "to produce, bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").

It replaced Old English earm (from Proto-Germanic *arma-, which is of disputed origin). Late 13c. as "unfortunate, to be pitied or regretted." In contemptuous use, "morally inferior, miserable, wretched," by early 15c. Used figuratively ("spiritually poor") from early 14c. (to be poor in spirit is to be "spiritually humble"). Meaning "deficient in desirable or essential qualities" is from c. 1300. In reference to inhabited places from c. 1300; of soil, etc., from late 14c. In modest or apologetic use, "humble, slight, insignificant," from early 15c.

The poor boy sandwich, made of simple but filling ingredients, was invented and named in New Orleans in 1921. To poor mouth "deny one's advantages" is from 1965 (to make a poor mouth "whine" is Scottish dialect from 1822). Slang poor man's________ "the cheaper alternative to _______," is from 1854. Poor relation "relative or kinsman in humble circumstances" is by 1720.

post-partum (adj.)

also postpartum, 1837, "occurring after the birth of a child," from Latin post partum "after birth," from post "after" (see post-) + accusative of partus "a bearing, a bringing forth," from partus, past participle of parire "to bring forth, bear, produce, create; bring about, accomplish" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth"). Phrase post-partum depression is attested by 1929.

preparation (n.)

late 14c., preparacioun, "act of preparing or making ready, preliminary act or operation, a previous setting in order," from Old French preparacion (13c.) and directly from Latin praeparationem (nominative praeparatio) "a making ready," noun of action from past participle stem of praeparare "prepare," from prae "before" (see pre-) + parare "make ready" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure"). Meaning "a substance especially prepared or manufactured" is from 1640s.

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