Words related to *pere-
also antepartum, "occurring or existing before birth," 1908, from Latin phrase ante partum "before birth," from ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + accusative of partus "a bearing, a bringing forth," from partus, past participle of parire "to bring forth" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
"a collection of tools, utensils, etc. adapted as a means to some end," 1620s, from Latin apparatus "tools, implements, equipment; preparation, a preparing," noun of state from past-participle stem of apparare "prepare," from ad "to" (see ad-) + parare "make ready" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
late 13c., appareillen, "prepare, make preparations;" late 14c., "to equip, provide with proper clothing; dress or dress up," from Old French apareillier "prepare, make (someone) ready, dress (oneself)," 12c., Modern French appareiller, from Vulgar Latin *appariculare.
This is either from Latin apparare "prepare, make ready" (see apparatus), or from Vulgar Latin *ad-particulare "to put things together," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot" (see particle (n.)). "The 15th c. spellings were almost endless" [OED].
By either derivation the sense is etymologically "to join like to like, to fit, to suit." Compare French habiller "to dress," originally "prepare, arrange," English dress, from Latin directus. The words were "specially applied to clothing, as the necessary preparation for every kind of action" [Wedgwood, "A Dictionary of English Etymology," 1859].
Cognate with Italian aparecchiare, Spanish aparejar, Portuguese aparelhar. Related: Appareled; apparelled; appareling; apparelling.
c. 1600, "unlike in kind, essentially different, having no common ground," from Latin disparatus, past participle of disparare "divide, separate," from dis- "apart" (see dis-) + parare "get ready, prepare" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
The meaning seems to have been influenced in Latin by dispar "unequal, unlike" (from apparently unrelated Latin par "equal, equal-sized, well-matched"). Related: Disparately; disparateness. As a noun, "one of two or more things or characters so unlike that they cannot be compared with each other," 1580s.
early 13c., from Old French empereor "emperor, leader, ruler" (11c.; accusative; nominative emperere; Modern French empereur), from Latin imperatorem (nominative imperator) "commander, emperor," from past participle stem of imperare "to command" (see empire).
Originally a title conferred by vote of the Roman army on a successful general, later by the Senate on Julius and Augustus Caesar and adopted by their successors except Tiberius and Claudius. In the Middle Ages, applied to rulers of China, Japan, etc.; non-historical European application in English had been only to the Holy Roman Emperors (who in German documents are called kaiser), from late 13c., until in 1804 Napoleon took the title "Emperor of the French."
mid-14c., "territory subject to an emperor's rule;" in general "realm, dominion;" late 14c. as "authority of an emperor, supreme power in governing; imperial power," in Middle English generally of the Roman Empire.
From Old French empire "rule, authority, kingdom, imperial rule" (11c.), from Latin imperium "a rule, a command; authority, control, power; supreme power, sole dominion; military authority; a dominion, realm," from imperare "to command," from assimilated form of in- "in" (from PIE root *en "in") + parare "to order, prepare" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").
Not etymologically restricted to "territory ruled by an emperor," but used that way. The Empire, meaning "the British Empire," first recorded 1772 (it officially devolved into "The Commonwealth" in 1931); before that it meant the Holy Roman Empire (1670s).
[P]roperly an empire is an aggregate of conquered, colonized, or confederated states, each with its own government subordinate or tributary to that of the empire as a whole. [Century Dictionary]
Empire as the name of a style (especially in reference to a style of dresses with high waistlines) is by 1860, in reference to the affected classicism prevailing in France during the reign of Napoleon I (1804-15). Second Empire is in reference to the rule of Napoleon III of France (1852-70). New York has been called the Empire State since 1834.
"young cow that has not had a calf," Middle English heifer, from Old English heahfore (West Saxon); Northumbrian hehfaro, heffera (plural), "heifer," of unknown origin, not found outside English.
The first element seems to be heah "high," which is common in Old English compounds with a sense of "great in size." The second element might be from a fem. form of Old English fearr "bull," from Proto-Germanic *farzi-, from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, bring forth." Or it might be related to Old English faran "to go" (giving the whole a sense of "high-stepper"); but there are serious sense difficulties with both conjectures. Liberman offers this alternative:
Old English seems to have had the word *hægfore 'heifer.' The first element (*hæg-) presumably meant 'enclosure' (as do haw and hedge), whereas -fore was a suffix meaning 'dweller, occupant' ....
In modern use, a female that has not yet calved, as opposed to a cow (n.), which has, and a calf (n.1), which is an animal of either sex not more than a year old. As derisive slang for "a woman, girl" it dates from 1835.
1520s, in grammar, "expressing command," used of the form of a verb which expresses command, entreaty, advice, or exhortation, from Late Latin imperativus "pertaining to a command," from imperat-, past participle stem of imperare "to command, requisition," from assimilated form of in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + parare "to arrange, prepare, adorn" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure").