Words related to *ost-
"urn or vase for the bones of the dead;" also "place where bones of the dead are deposited," 1650s, from Late Latin ossuarium "charnel house, receptacle for bones of the dead," from neuter of Latin ossuarius "of bones," from Latin os (plural ossua) "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone") on model of mortuarium.
"sea-eagle, osprey," c. 1600, from Latin ossifraga "vulture," fem. of ossifragus, literally "bone-breaker," from ossifragus (adj.) "bone-breaking," from os (genitive ossis) "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone") + stem of frangere "to break" (from PIE root *bhreg- "to break").
By this name Pliny meant "the Lammergeier" (that name is from German and means literally "lamb-vulture"), a very large Old World vulture that swallows and digests bones and was believed also to drop them from aloft to break them and get at the marrow. But in England and France, the word was transferred to the osprey, perhaps on the basis of a rough similarity of sound between the two words.
1713, intransitive, "to harden like bone, become bone;" 1721, intransitive, "convert to bone;" a back-formation from ossification, or else modeled on French ossifier (18c.) and formed from Latin os (genitive ossis) "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone") + -fy. Figurative sense "become rigid and fixed" (of thought, customs, etc.) is by 1858. Related: Ossified; ossifying.
1857, "disease of the bones," from Greek osteon "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone") + -pathy "disorder, disease," from Greek -patheia, combining form of pathos "suffering, disease, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). As a system of treating ailments by the manipulation of bones, it dates from 1889.
1580s, the name of a legal political method among the ancient Athenians by which men deemed dangerous to the liberties of the people or embarrassing to the state were banished for 10 years by public vote, from French ostracisme (16c.), Modern Latin ostracismus, or directly from Greek ostrakismos, from ostrakizein "to ostracize," from ostrakon "tile, potsherd," from PIE *ost-r-, from root *ost- "bone," which also is the source of Greek osteon "bone," ostreion "oyster," and German Estrich "pavement" (which is from Medieval Latin astracus "pavement," ultimately from Greek ostrakon).
So called because the citizens each indicated the name of the man they wished banished by scratching it on a potsherd or tile. A similar practice in ancient Syracuse (with banishment for five years) was by writing names on olive leaves, and thus was called petalismos. In English, the word in the general sense of "expulsion, exclusion" (from society, etc.) is by early 17c.