Etymology
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Words related to *mendh-

chrestomathy (n.)

"collection of literary passages" (especially from a foreign language), 1774, from French chrestomathie, from Latinized form of Greek khrestomatheia "desire of learning; book containing selected passages," lit. "useful learning," from khrestos "useful" (verbal adjective of khresthai "to make use of," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want") + manthanein "to learn" (from PIE root *mendh- "to learn"). Related: Chrestomathic.

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mathematic (n.)

"mathematical science," late 14c. as singular noun, mathematik (replaced since early 17c. by mathematics, q.v.), from Old French mathematique and directly from Latin mathematica (plural), from Greek mathēmatike tekhnē "mathematical science," feminine singular of mathēmatikos (adj.) "relating to mathematics, scientific, astronomical; pertaining to learning, disposed to learn," from mathēma (genitive mathēmatos) "science, knowledge, mathematical knowledge; a lesson," literally "that which is learnt;" from manthanein "to learn," from PIE root *mendh- "to learn."

As an adjective, "pertaining to mathematics," from c. 1400, from French mathématique or directly from Latin mathematicus.

mathematical (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of mathematics," early 15c., from Medieval Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic) + -al (1). Also, by 1765, "pertaining to the quadrivium," comprising arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It also could include optics. Related: Mathematically.

The four mathematical arts are arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; these anciently were termed the quadrivium, or fourfold way of knowledge. [Sir John Hawkins, "A General History of the Science and Practice of Music," Sir John Hawkins, 1776]
mathematics (n.)

"the science of quantity; the abstract science which investigates the concepts of numerical and spatial relations," 1580s; see mathematic (the older form of the word in English, attested from late 14c.) + -ics. Originally one of three branches of Aristotelian theoretical science, along with first philosophy (or metaphysics) and physics (or natural philosophy).

opsimathy (n.)

"education late in life," 1650s, from Greek opsimathia "late learning," from opse "late, after a long time" (related to opiso "backward," opisthen "behind," from opi, a variant of epi "on it, at it;" see epi-) + manthanein "to learn" (from PIE root *mendh- "to learn"). Related: Opsimath (n.).

polymath (n.)

"person of various learning," 1620s, from Greek polymathēs "having learned much, knowing much," from polys "much" (from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill") + root of manthanein "to learn" (from PIE root *mendh- "to learn"). Related: Polymathy "acquaintance with many branches of learning" (1640s, from Greek polymathia "much learning"); polymathic.

philomath (n.)

"a lover of learning," 1640s, from Greek philomathēs, from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + mathos "learning," from manthanein "to learn," from PIE root *mendh- "to learn."