Words related to *man-

amanuensis (n.)
"one who takes dictation or copies what is written by another," 1610s, from Latin amanuensis "adjective used as a noun," an alteration of (servus) a manu "secretary," literally "servant from the hand;" from a for ab "from, of," here used as a designation of office (see ab-), + manu, ablative of manus "hand" (from PIE root *man- (2) "hand"). With -ensis, for which see -ese.
command (v.)

c. 1300, "order or direct with authority" (transitive), from Old French comander "to order, enjoin, entrust" (12c., Modern French commander), from Vulgar Latin *commandare, from Latin commendare "to recommend, entrust to" (see commend); altered by influence of Latin mandare "to commit, entrust" (see mandate (n.)). In this sense Old English had bebeodan.

Intransitive sense "act as or have authority of a commander, have or exercise supreme power" is from late 14c. Also from late 14c. as "have within the range of one's influence" (of resources, etc.), hence, via a military sense, "have a view of, overlook" in reference to elevated places (1690s). Related: Commanded; commanding.

Command-post "headquarters of a military unit" is from 1918. A command performance (1863) is one given by royal command.

commando (n.)

1791, in a South African context, "private military raid undertaken by the Boers against the natives for personal ends," also the name of the leader of the raid and the permission given for it, from Afrikaans commando, "a troop under a commander," from Portuguese commando, literally "party commanded" (see command (v.)).

"A colonist" says he, "who lives two hundred leagues up the country, arrives at the Cape, to complain that the Caffrees have taken all his cattle; and intreats a commando, which is a permission to go, with the help of his neighbours, to retake his property; the governor, who either does not, or feigns not to understand the trick, adheres strictly to the facts expressed in the petition: a preamble of regular information would occasion long delays; a permission is easily given—tis but a word—the fatal word is written, which proves a sentence of death to a thousand poor savages, who have no such defence or resources as their persecutors." [George Carter, "A Narrative of the Loss of the Grosvenor," 1791]

Sense of "elite special forces soldier trained for rapid operations" is from 1940 (originally of shock troops to repel the threatened German invasion of England), first attested in writings of Winston Churchill, who could have picked it up during the Boer War.

Phrase going commando "not wearing underwear" attested by 1996, U.S. slang, perhaps on notion of being ready for instant action.

commend (v.)

mid-14c., comenden, "praise, mention approvingly," from Latin commendare "to commit to the care or keeping (of someone), to entrust to; to commit to writing;" hence "to set off, render agreeable, praise," from com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + mandare "to commit to one's charge" (see mandate (n.)). A doublet of command.

Sense of "commit, deliver with confidence" in English is from late 14c. Meaning "bring to mind, send the greeting of" is from c. 1400. The "praise" sense is from the notion of "present as worthy of notice or regard;" also in some cases probably a shortening of recommend. Related: Commended; commending.

countermand (v.)

"to revoke (a command or order)," early 15c., contremaunden, from Anglo-French and Old French contremander "reverse an order or command" (13c.), from contre- "against" (see contra (prep., adv.)) + mander, from Latin mandare "to order" (see mandate (n.)). Related: Countermanded; countermanding. As a noun, "a contrary order," 1540s.

demand (v.)

late 14c., demaunden, "ask questions, make inquiry," from Old French demander (12c.) "to request; to demand," from Latin demandare "entrust, charge with a commission" (in Medieval Latin, "to ask, request, demand"), from de- "completely" (see de-) + mandare "to order" (see mandate (n.)).

Meaning "ask for with insistence or urgency" is from early 15c., from Anglo-French legal use ("to ask for as a right"). Meaning "require as necessary or useful" is by 1748. Related: Demanded; demanding.


masc. proper name, Old English Eadmund, literally "prosperity-protector," from ead "wealth, prosperity, happiness" (see Edith). The second element is mund "hand, protection, guardian," from Proto-Germanic *mundō-, from PIE root *man- (2) "hand."

emancipate (v.)

1620s, "set free from control," from Latin emancipatus, past participle of emancipare "put (a son) out of paternal authority, declare (someone) free, give up one's authority over," in Roman law, the freeing of a son or wife from the legal authority (patria potestas) of the pater familias, to make his or her own way in the world; from assimilated form of ex- "out, away" (see ex-) + mancipare "deliver, transfer or sell," from mancipum "ownership," from manus "hand" (from PIE root *man- (2) "hand") + capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." Related: Emancipated; emancipating.

Not used by the Romans in reference to the freeing of slaves, the verb for this being manumittere. The English word was adopted in the jargon of the cause of religious toleration (17c.), then anti-slavery (1776). Also used in reference to women who free themselves from conventional customs (1850).

legerdemain (n.)

early 15c., "conjuring tricks, sleight of hand," from Old French léger de main "quick of hand," literally "light of hand." Léger "light" in weight (Old French legier, 12c.) is from Latin levis "light" (from PIE root *legwh- "not heavy, having little weight"). It is cognate with Spanish ligero, Italian leggiero "light, nimble" (hence also leger line or ledger line in music). Main "hand" is from Latin manus (from PIE root *man- (2) "hand").

maintain (v.)

c. 1300, maintenen, "to support, uphold, aid;" also "hold fast, keep in possession, preserve from capture or loss," from Anglo-French meintenir (Old French maintenir, 12c.) "keep (a wife), sustain; persevere in, practice continually," from Latin manu tenere "hold in the hand," from manu, ablative of manus "hand" (from PIE root *man- (2) "hand") + tenere "to hold" (from PIE root *ten- "to stretch").

Sense of "hold in an existing state or condition, keep in existence or continuance" is from early 14c. Meaning "to carry on, keep up" is from mid-14c.; that of "to keep oneself, support" is from late 14c. Sense of "defend in speech, uphold by argument or assertion" is from mid-14c. Meaning "practice habitually" is from c. 1400. Sense of "furnish means for the subsistence or existence of" is from c. 1400. Related: Maintained; maintaining; maintains.