Words related to *klau-
c. 1200, "a sentence, a brief passage of a written composition," from Old French clause "stipulation" (in a legal document), 12c., from Medieval Latin clausa "conclusion," used in the sense of classical Latin clausula "the end, a closing, termination," also "end of a sentence or a legal argument," from clausa, fem. noun from past participle of claudere "to close, to shut, to conclude" (see close (v.)).
Grammatical sense "one of the lesser sentences which united form a complex or compound sentence" is from c. 1300. Legal meaning "distinct condition, stipulation, or proviso" is recorded from late 14c. in English. The sense of "ending" mostly faded from the word between Latin and French, but it is occasionally found in Middle English.
A clause differs from a phrase in containing both a subject and its predicate, while a phrase is a group of two or more words not containing both these essential elements of a simple sentence. [Century Dictionary]
"morbid fear of being shut up in a confined space," coined 1879 (in article by Italian-born, French-naturalized Swiss-English physician Dr. Benjamin Ball), with -phobia "fear" + Latin claustrum "a bolt, a means of closing; a place shut in, confined place, frontier fortress" (in Medieval Latin "cloister"), from past participle of claudere "to close" (see close (v.)).
keyboard musical instrument with strings, invented in the Middle Ages and in general use in Germany, mid-15c., from Medieval Latin clavicordium (15c.), from Latin clavis "a key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook") + chorda "a string" (see cord (n.) and compare clavier). It was replaced 18c. by the pianoforte.
"collarbone," 1610s, from French clavicule "collarbone" (16c.), also "small key," from Medieval Latin clavicula "collarbone" (used c. 980 in a translation of Avicenna), special use of classical Latin clavicula, literally "small key, bolt," diminutive of clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"); in the anatomical sense a loan-translation of Greek kleis "key, collarbone," which is from the same PIE source. So called supposedly from its function as the "fastener" of the shoulder. Related: Clavicular.
1708, "keyboard of a pianoforte, organ, etc.," from French clavier, originally "a key-bearer," from Latin clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"). The French word also is the source of German Klavier, Dutch klavier, Danish klaver, etc. The German word was used generally of keyboard instruments with strings, and is the source of the English use of the word for "a clavichord, a harpsichord, a pianoforte, an organ," attested from 1845.
also cleché, 1680s, "pierced through with a figure of the same kind," but also, of a cross, "having arms which spread or grow broader toward the extremities," from French cléché (17c.), from Latin *clavicatus "key-holed," or clavicella "little key," from clavis "key" (from PIE root *klau- "hook"). The cross sense perhaps from or merged with Latin clava "club, knotty branch."