Words related to *keu-
"sense-perception," 1833 as a German word in English, nativized from 1848, from German Anschauung "mode of view," literally "a looking at," from anschauen "to look at," from Middle High German aneschouwen, from an (see on) + Old High German scouwon "to look at" (from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive"). A term in Kantian philosophy.
c. 1300, caucioun, "bail, guarantee, pledge," from Old French caution "security, surety" (13c.), from Latin cautionem (nominative cautio) "caution, care, foresight, precaution," noun of action from past-participle stem of cavere "to be on one's guard" (from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive").
The Latin sense re-emerged in English as "prudence in regard to danger" (1650s). The meaning "word of warning, monitory advice" is from c. 1600. The meaning "anything which excites alarm or astonishment" is U.S. slang, 1835.
"warning, hint of caution," 1550s, Latin, literally "let him beware," third person singular present subjunctive of cavere "to beware, take heed, watch, guard against" (from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive"). The legal meaning "public warning preventing some action" is attested from 1650s.
"fame, renown, glory," 1799, probably originally in university slang, from Greek kydos "glory, fame," especially in battle, "a poetical word, found chiefly in the Iliad and Odyssey" [Century Dictionary], literally "that which is heard of," perhaps from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive." In form the word is a Greek singular noun, but the final -s often is mistaken as a plural suffix in English, leading to the barbarous back-formation kudo (attested by 1936).
"previous caution, prudent foresight (to prevent mischief or secure good results); a measure taken beforehand, an act of foresight," c. 1600, from French précaution (16c.) and directly from Late Latin praecautionem (nominative praecautio) "a safeguarding," noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin praecavere "to guard against beforehand," from prae "before" (see pre-) + cavere "to be one's own guard" (see caution (n.)). In mid-20c. a euphemism for "contraception." The verb meaning "to warn (someone) in advance" is from c. 1700.
1540s, originally "person hired to remove refuse from streets," a modification of Middle English scavager, scawageour (late 14c.), the title of a London official who originally was charged with collecting tax on goods sold by foreign merchants.
This is from Middle English scavage, scauage (Anglo-French scawage) "toll or duty exacted by a local official on goods offered for sale in one's precinct" (c. 1400), from Old North French escauwage "inspection," from a Germanic source (compare Old High German scouwon, Old English sceawian "to look at, inspect;" see show (v.)).
The scavenger later was charged with inspection and maintenance of streets: Blount's description ("Glossographia," 1656) is "an Officer well known in London, that makes clean the streets, by scraping up and carrying away the dust and durt." The modern general sense of the word "one who collects and consumes or puts to use what has been discarded" evolved through the notion of "collect and dispose of rubbish."
The word came to be regarded as an agent noun in -er, but the verb scavenge (q.v.) is a late back-formation from the noun. For the unetymological -n- (c. 1500), compare harbinger, passenger, messenger, etc. Extended 1590s to animals that feed on decaying matter. Scavenger hunt is attested from 1937. Mayhew (1851) has scavagery "street-cleaning, removal of filth from streets."
"shining, luster, brightness, splendor" 1602 (in "Hamlet" iii.2), noun use of adjective sheene "beautiful, bright," from Old English scene, sciene "beautiful; bright, brilliant," from Proto-Germanic *skauniz "conspicuous" (source also of Old Frisian skene, Middle Dutch scone, Dutch schoon, Old High German skoni, German schön "fair, beautiful;" Gothic skaunjai "beautiful"), from PIE root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive." It is related to show (v.), and OED calls it "virtually a verbal noun to shine."
The meaning "thin film of oil on water" is from 1970. As an adjective now only in poetic or archaic use, but in Middle English used after a woman's name, or as a noun, "fair one, beautiful woman."
Middle English sheuen, from Old English sceawian "to look at, see, gaze, behold, observe; inspect, examine; look for, choose," from Proto-Germanic *skauwojanan (source also of Old Saxon skauwon "to look at," Old Frisian skawia, Dutch schouwen, Old High German scouwon "to look at"), from Proto-Germanic root *skau- "behold, look at," from PIE *skou-, variant of root *keu- "to see, observe, perceive."
The causal meaning "let be seen; put in sight, make known" evolved c. 1200 for unknown reasons, seems to be unique to English (German schauen still means "look at"), and in a century displaced the older meaning. The sense of "explain, make clear" is from c. 1300, as the intransitive sense of "be seen, appear."
The spelling shew, popular 18c. and surviving into early 19c., represents an obsolete pronunciation (rhymes with view). The horse-racing sense of "finish third or in the top three" is by 1903, perhaps from an earlier sense in card-playing.