Words related to *kand-
"kind of stand used to support lamps or candles," 1811, from Latin candelabrum, which meant "candlestick," from candela "a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax" (see candle). Old English had candeltreow "candle-tree" in same sense. The word was borrowed earlier (late 14c.) from Old French as chaundelabre with the Latin sense. Candelabra is the Latin plural.
1620s, "white, bright," from Latin candidum "white; pure; sincere, honest, upright," from candere "to shine" (from PIE root *kand- "to shine"). In English, the metaphoric extension to "frank, honest, sincere" is recorded by 1670s (compare French candide "open, frank, ingenuous, sincere"). Of photography, "not posed, informal," 1929. Related: Candidly; candidness.
"person who seeks or is put forward for an office by election or appointment," c. 1600, from Latin candidatus "one aspiring to office," originally "white-robed," past participle of candidare "to make white or bright," from candidus, past participle of candere "to shine" (from PIE root *kand- "to shine").
White was the usual color of the Roman toga, but office-seekers in ancient Rome wore a gleaming white toga (toga candida), probably whitened with fine powdered chalk, presumably to indicate the purity of their intentions in seeking a role in civic affairs.
"cylindrical body of tallow, wax, etc., formed on a wick and used as a source of artificial light," Old English candel "lamp, lantern, candle," an early ecclesiastical borrowing from Latin candela "a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax," from candere "to shine" (from PIE root *kand- "to shine").
The Latin word is also the source of French chandelle, Spanish candela, Irish coinneal, Welsh canwyll, Russian kandilo, Arabic qandil, etc. Candles were unknown in ancient Greece (where oil lamps sufficed), but common from early times among Romans and Etruscans. Candles on birthday cakes seem to have been originally a German custom.
To hold a candle to originally meant "to help in a subordinate capacity," from the notion of an assistant or apprentice holding a candle for light while the master works (compare Old English taporberend "acolyte"). To burn the candle at both ends "consume or waste prodigiously" is recorded from 1730.
"openness of mind, impartiality, frankness, freedom from reserve or disguise," c. 1600, from Latin candor "purity, openness," originally "whiteness, brightness, radiance," from candere "to shine, to be white" (from PIE root *kand- "to shine"). It was borrowed earlier in English (c. 1500) in the Latin literal sense of "extreme whiteness."
"branched cluster of lights suspended from a ceiling," 1736, from Middle English chaundeler "candlestick" (late 14c.), from Old French chandelier (n.1), 12c., earlier chandelabre "candlestick, candelabrum" (10c.), from Latin candelabrum, from candela "candle" (see candle).
Originally a candlestick, then a cluster of them; finally a distinction was made (with a re-spelling mid-18c. in French fashion — in 17c. English the French spelling referred to a military device), between a candelabrum, which stands, and a chandelier, which hangs.
"maker or seller of candles," late 14c., attested as a surname from late 13c. (also, from early 14c. "candle-holder;" see chandelier), from Old French chandelier (n.2) "candle-maker, candle-seller; person in charge of lighting a household, monastery, etc.," from Medieval Latin candelarius "a candle-maker," from candela "candle" (see candle). Native candleman is attested from mid-13c. By 1580s the word also came to mean "dealer in provisions, merchant."
aromatic gum resin from a certain type of tree, used anciently as incense and in religious rituals, late 14c., apparently from Old French franc encense, from franc "noble, true" (see frank (adj.)), in this case probably signifying "pure" or "of the highest quality," + encens "incense" (see incense (n.)).