Etymology
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Words related to *gno-

acknowledge (v.)
late 15c., "admit or show one's knowledge," a blend of Middle English aknow "admit or show one's knowledge" (from Old English oncnawan "understand, come to recognize," from on (see on (prep.)) + cnawan "recognize;" see know) and Middle English knowlechen "admit, acknowledge" (c. 1200; see knowledge). "By 16th c. the earlier vbs. knowledge and a(c)know ... were obs., and acknowledge took their place" [OED].

In the merger, an unetymological -c- slipped in; perhaps the explanation is that when English kn- became a simple "n" sound, the -c- stepped up to preserve, in this word, the ancient "kn-" sound. Related: Acknowledged; acknowledging.
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acquaint (v.)

early 13c., "make oneself known" (reflexive, now obsolete); early 14c., "to gain for oneself personal knowledge of," from Old French acointer "make known; make or seek acquaintance of," from Vulgar Latin *accognitare "to make known," from Latin accognitus "acquainted with," past participle of accognoscere "know well," from ad "to" (see ad-) + cognitus, past participle of cognoscere "come to know" (see cognizance).

Meaning "to inform (someone of something), furnish with knowledge or information" is from 1550s. Related: Acquainted; acquainting.

agnostic (n.)

1870, "one who professes that the existence of a First Cause and the essential nature of things are not and cannot be known" [Klein]; coined by T.H. Huxley, supposedly in September 1869, from Greek agnostos "unknown, unknowable," from a- "not" (see a- (3)) + gnōstos "(to be) known," from PIE root *gno- "to know." Sometimes said to be a reference to Paul's mention of the altar to "the Unknown God" in Acts, but according to Huxley it was coined with reference to the early Church movement known as Gnosticism (see Gnostic). The adjective also is first recorded 1870.

I ... invented what I conceived to be the appropriate title of 'agnostic,' ... antithetic to the 'Gnostic' of Church history who professed to know so much about the very things of which I was ignorant. [T.H. Huxley, "Science and Christian Tradition," 1889]
The agnostic does not simply say, "I do not know." He goes another step, and he says, with great emphasis, that you do not know. [Robert G. Ingersoll, "Reply to Dr. Lyman Abbott," 1890]
anagnorisis (n.)
"recognition," especially in dramatic works, c. 1800, from Latin, from Greek anagnorisis "recognition," from anagnorizein "to recognize," from ana "again" (see ana-) + gnorizein "to make known, gain knowledge of," from PIE root *gno- "to know."
astrognosy (n.)

"knowledge of the fixed stars, their names, magnitudes, etc.," 1835, from astro- "star" + -gnosy, from Greek gnōsis "a knowing, knowledge," from PIE root *gno- "to know."

can (v.1)

Old English 1st & 3rd person singular present indicative of cunnan "to know," less commonly as an auxiliary, "to have power to, to be able," (also "to have carnal knowledge"), from Proto-Germanic *kunnjanan "to be mentally able, to have learned" (source also of Old Norse kenna "to become acquainted, try," Old Frisian kanna "to recognize, admit, know," German kennen "to know," Middle Dutch kennen "to know," Gothic kannjan "to make known"), from PIE root *gno- "to know."

It holds now only the third sense of "to know," that of "to know how to do something" (as opposed to "to know as a fact" and "to be acquainted with" something or someone). Also used in the sense of may, denoting mere permission. An Old English preterite-present verb, its original past participle, couth, survived only in negation (see uncouth), but compare could. The present participle has spun off with a deflected sense as cunning.

cognition (n.)

mid-15c., cognicioun, "ability to comprehend, mental act or process of knowing," from Latin cognitionem (nominative cognitio) "a getting to know, acquaintance, knowledge," noun of action from past participle stem of cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com"together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know." In 17c. the meaning was extended to include perception and sensation.

cognizance (n.)

mid-14c., conisance, "device or mark by which something or someone is known," from Anglo-French conysance "recognition," later, "knowledge," from Old French conoissance "acquaintance, recognition; knowledge, wisdom" (Modern French connaissance), from past participle of conoistre "to know," from Latin cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," from assimilated form of com "together" (see co-) + gnoscere "to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know."

Meaning "knowledge by observation or notice, understanding, information" is from c. 1400. In law, "the exercise of jurisdiction, the right to try a case" (mid-15c.). Meaning "acknowledgment, admission" is from 1560s. The -g- was restored in English spelling 15c. and has gradually affected the pronunciation, which was always "con-." The old pronunciation lingered longest in legal use.

con (n.2)

a slang or colloquial shortening of various nouns beginning in con-, such as, from the 19th century, confidant, conundrum, conformist, convict, contract, and from the 20th century, conductor, conservative.

connoisseur (n.)

1714, "a critical judge of any art, one well-acquainted with any of the fine arts and thus competent to pass judgment on its products," from French connoisseur (Modern French connaiseur), from Old French conoisseor "an expert, a judge, one well-versed," from conoistre "to know," from Latin cognoscere "to get to know, recognize, become well-acquainted with," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gnoscere "recognize," from PIE root *gno- "to know."

Transferred sense of "a critic in matters of taste (in food, wine, etc.) is from 1796. The attempt in 183. to introduce a corresponding abstract noun connoissance did not succeed. Related: Connoisseurship