Words related to *ghredh-
"make an attack," 1714, probably a back-formation from aggression; an identical word was used earlier with a sense of "approach" (1570s) and in this sense it is from French aggresser, from Late Latin aggressare, frequentative of Latin aggredi "to approach, attack." Related: Aggressed; aggressing.
1610s, "unprovoked attack," from French aggression (16c., Modern French agression), from Latin aggressionem (nominative aggressio) "a going to, an attack," noun of action from past-participle stem of aggredi "to approach; to attempt; to attack," from ad "to" (see ad-) + gradi (past participle gressus) "to step," from gradus "a step," figuratively "a step toward something, an approach" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go"). The psychological sense of "hostile or destructive behavior" is recorded by 1912 in A.A. Brill's translation of Freud.
1791, "characterized by aggression, tending to make the first attack," with -ive + Latin aggress-, past-participle stem of aggredi "to approach; to attempt; to attack," from ad "to" (see ad-) + gradi (past participle gressus) "to step," from gradus "a step," figuratively "a step toward something, an approach" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go"). In psychological use from 1913, first in translations of Freud. The colloquial meaning "self-assertive, pushy" is from 1931. Related: Aggressively; aggressiveness.
"consisting of 100 degrees, divided into 100 equal parts," 1799, from French, from centi- "hundred" (see centi-) + second element from Latin gradi "to walk, go, step" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go"). The centigrade thermometer (see Celsius) divides the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 degrees.
c. 1400, "a body of attendants; also "meeting of armed forces" (mid-15c.); sense of "a coming together of people, a meeting of individuals" is from 1520s; from Latin congressus "a friendly meeting; a hostile encounter," past participle of congredi "to meet with; to fight with," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + gradi "to walk," from gradus "a step" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go").
Meaning "sexual union" is from 1580s. Specific sense of "a meeting of delegates, formal meeting of persons having a representational character" is first recorded 1670s. Used in reference to the national legislative body of the American states (with a capital C-) since 1775 (from 1765 in America as a name for proposed bodies).
The three sittings of the Continental Congress, representing the 13 rebellious American colonies, met 1774, 1775-6, and 1776-81. The Congress of the Confederation met from 1781-89, and the Congress of the United States met from March 4, 1789. The Congress of Vienna met Nov. 1, 1814, to June 8, 1815, and redrew the map of Europe with an eye to creating a balance of powers after the disruptions of Napoleon.
late 14c., degraden, "deprive of office, dignity, or honors; reduce from a higher to a lower rank," from Old French degrader (12c.) "degrade, deprive (of office, rank, etc.)," from des- "down" (see dis-) + Latin gradi "to walk, go, step" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go"). From 1640s as "lower in character, cause to deteriorate." Intransitive sense of "degenerate, deteriorate" is by 1850. Related: Degraded; degrading.
c. 1200, "a step, a stair," also "a position in a hierarchy," and "a stage of progress, a single movement toward an end," from Old French degré (12c.) "a step (of a stair), pace, degree (of relationship), academic degree; rank, status, position," which is said to be from Vulgar Latin *degradus "a step," from Latin de- "down" (see de-) + gradus "a step; a step climbed;" figuratively "a step toward something, a degree of something rising by stages" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go").
A word of wide use in Middle English; in 14c. it also meant "way, manner; condition, state, standing." Most extended senses in Middle English are from the notion of a hierarchy of steps. Genealogical sense of "a certain remove in the line of blood" is from mid-14c.; educational sense of "an academic rank conferred by diploma" is from late 14c. By degrees "gradually, by stages" is from late 14c.
Other transferred senses are from the notion of "one of a number of subdivisions of something extended in space or time," hence "intensive quality, measure, extent." The meaning "1/360th of a circle" is from late 14c. (The division of the circle into 360 degrees was known in Babylon and Egypt; the number is perhaps from the daily motion of the sun through the zodiac in the course of a year.) From 1540s as "a measure of heat;" the specific use as a unit of temperature on a thermometer is by 1727. In reference to crime, by 1670s as "one of certain distinctions of culpability;" in U.S. use by 1821 as "one of the phases of the same kind of crime."
"to turn away in speaking or writing from the direct or appointed course," 1520s, from Latin digressus, past participle of digredi "to go aside, depart, deviate," from dis- "apart, aside" (see dis-) + gradi "to step, go" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go"). Or perhaps it is a back-formation from digression. Related: Digressed; digressing.
late 14c., digressioun, "act of deviating from the main subject matter in speaking or writing," from Latin digressionem (nominative digressio) "a going away, departing," noun of action from past participle stem of digredi "to deviate," from dis- "apart, aside" (see dis-) + gradi "to step, go" (from PIE root *ghredh- "to walk, go").