Words related to *gher-

jardiniere (n.)

ornamental flower stand, 1841, from French jardinière "flower pot" (also "female gardener, gardener's wife"), noun use of fem. of adjective jardinier "of the garden," from jardin "garden; orchard; palace grounds," from Vulgar Latin *hortus gardinus "enclosed garden," via Frankish *gardo or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *gardaz, from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose."

kindergarten (n.)
Origin and meaning of kindergarten

1852, from German Kinder-Garten (1840), literally "children-garden, garden of children," a metaphoric name from Kinder "children" (plural of Kind "child;" see kin (n.)) + Garten "garden" (from suffixed form of PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose"). Coined by German educator Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) in reference to his method of developing intelligence in young children. Compare the double sense in nursery

Kindergarten means a garden of children, and Froebel, the inventor of it, or rather, as he would prefer to express it, the discoverer of the method of Nature, meant to symbolize by the name the spirit and plan of treatment. How does the gardener treat his plants? He studies their individual natures, and puts them into such circumstances of soil and atmosphere as enable them to grow, flower, and bring forth fruit,-- also to renew their manifestation year after year. [Mann, Horace, and Elizabeth P. Peabody, "Moral Culture of Infancy and Kindergarten Guide," Boston, 1863]

The first in England was established 1850 by Johannes Ronge, German Catholic priest; in America, 1868, by Elizabeth Peabody of Boston, Mass. Taken into English untranslated, whereas other nations that borrowed the institution nativized the name (Danish börnehave, Modern Hebrew gan yeladim, literally "garden of children"). Sometimes partially Englished as kindergarden (a form attested by 1879).


in Germanic cosmology, "the abode of the human race, the world inhabited by men" (opposed to Asgard, the abode of the gods), by 1770, from Old Norse miðgarðr, from mið "mid" (from PIE root *medhyo- "middle") + Proto-Germanic *gardoz "enclosure, tract" (from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose;" compare yard (n.1)). The Old English cognate was middangeard, which later was folk-etymologized as Middle Earth.

orchard (n.)

late Old English orceard "fruit garden; piece of ground, usually enclosed, devoted to the culture of fruit-trees," also for meeting, recreation, etc., earlier ortgeard, perhaps reduced from wortgeard, from wort (Old English wyrt "vegetable, plant root") + geard "garden, yard" (also "vegetable garden" until 15c.); see yard (n.1). The first element would have been influenced in Middle English by Latin hortus (in Late Latin ortus) "garden," which also is from the PIE root (*gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose") that yielded yard (n.1). Orchard-house "glass house for the cultivation of fruits too delicate to be grown in open air" is by 1850.

Terpsichore (n.)

the muse of the dance, Greek Terpsikhore, literally "enjoyment of dance," from terpein "to delight" (from PIE root *terp- "to satisfy;" source also of Sanskrit trpyati "takes one's fill," Lithuanian tarpstu, tarpti "to thrive, prosper") + khoros "dance, chorus" (see chorus).


abode of the giants in Norse mythology, from Old Norse Utgarðar, from ut "out" (see out (adv.)) + garðr "yard" (from PIE root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose").

yard (n.1)

"patch of ground around a house," Old English geard "fenced enclosure, garden, court; residence, house," from Proto-Germanic *gardan- (source also of Old Norse garðr "enclosure, garden, yard;" Old Frisian garda, Dutch gaard, Old High German garto, German Garten "garden;" Gothic gards "house," garda "stall"), of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE *ghor-to-, suffixed form of root *gher- (1) "to grasp, enclose," with derivatives meaning "enclosure."

As "college campus enclosed by the main buildings," 1630s. Shipyard is from c. 1700. In railway usage, "ground adjacent to a train station or terminus, used for switching or coupling trains," 1827. Yard sale is attested by 1976.

dehortation (n.)

"dissuasion, advice or counsel to the contrary of what is proposed," 1520s, from Late Latin dehortationem (nominative dehortatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin dehortari "to dissuade," from de- "off, away" (see de-) + hortari "to exhort, urge, incite," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want."

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