Words related to *gher-
"an improper or inconsistent metaphor, exceptional or undue extension of a word's meaning" (as "to stone someone with bricks"), 1580s, from Latin catachresis, from Greek katakhresis "misuse" (of a word), from katakhresthai "to misuse," from kata "down" (here with a sense of "perversion;" see cata-) + khresthai "to use" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want"). Related: Catachrestic; catachrestical; catachrestically.
1875, "special spiritual gift or power divinely conferred, talent from God" (as on the early Christians in "Acts," etc.), Latinized form of Greek kharisma "favor, divine gift," from kharizesthai "to show favor to," from kharis "grace, beauty, kindness" (Charis was the name of one of the three attendants of Aphrodite), which is related to khairein "to rejoice at" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want").
In the form charism (plural charismata) it is attested in the "special spiritual gift from god" sense from 1640s. Middle English, meanwhile, had karisme "spiritual gift, divine grace" (c. 1500).
These gifts were of two classes, the gift of healing and gift of teaching, the latter again being of two kinds, the gift of prophecy and the gift of tongues. Such gifts have been claimed in later ages by certain teachers and sects in the church, as the Montanists and the Irvingites, and in recent times by some of those who practise the so-called faith-cure. [Century Dictionary, 1897]
The meaning "gift of leadership, power of authority" is from c. 1930, from German, used in this sense by Max Weber (1864-1920) in "Wirtschaft u. Gesellschaft" (1922). The more mundane sense of "personal charm" recorded by 1959.
"collection of literary passages" (especially from a foreign language), 1774, from French chrestomathie, from Latinized form of Greek khrestomatheia "desire of learning; book containing selected passages," lit. "useful learning," from khrestos "useful" (verbal adjective of khresthai "to make use of," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want") + manthanein "to learn" (from PIE root *mendh- "to learn"). Related: Chrestomathic.
"sacrament of the Lord's Supper, the Communion," mid-14c., from Old French eucariste, from Late Latin eucharistia, from Greek eukharistia "thanksgiving, gratitude," later "the Lord's Supper," from eukharistos "grateful," from eu "well" (see eu-) + stem of kharizesthai "show favor," from kharis "favor, grace," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want." Eukharisteo is the usual verb for "to thank, to be thankful" in Septuagint and Greek New Testament. Related: Eucharistic.
late 14c., exhortacioun, "incitement by means of argument, appeal, or admonition; the argument or appeal made," from Old French exhortacion and directly from Latin exhortationem (nominative exhortatio) "an exhortation, encouragement," noun of action from past-participle stem of exhortari "to exhort, encourage," from ex- "thoroughly" (see ex-) + hortari "encourage, urge" (from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want"). From early 15c. as "speech for the purpose of exhortation."
Old English grædig (West Saxon), gredig (Anglian) "voracious, hungry," also "covetous, eager to obtain," from Proto-Germanic *grædagaz (source also of Old Saxon gradag "greedy," Old Norse graðr "greed, hunger," Danish graadig, Dutch gretig, Old High German gratag "greedy," Gothic gredags "hungry"), from *græduz (source also of Gothic gredus "hunger," Old English grædum "eagerly"), possibly from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want" (source of Sanskrit grdh "to be greedy").
In Greek, the word was philargyros, literally "money-loving." A German word for it is habsüchtig, from haben "to have" + sucht "sickness, disease," with sense tending toward "passion for."
"urging to some course of conduct or action," 1580s, from French hortatoire and directly from Late Latin hortatorius "encouraging, cheering," from hortatus, past participle of hortari "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate," intensive of horiri "urge, incite, encourage," from PIE root *gher- (2) "to like, want." Older in English is hortation (1530s), from Latin hortationem.